SY321 Lecture Notes - Total Fertility Rate, Socialized Medicine, Alternative Medicine

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27 Jan 2013
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Chapter 8
Human capital: is the sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses
Social capital: refers to the networks or connections that individuals possess
Cultural capital: is the stock of learning and skills that increases the chance of securing a superior job
Low-income cutoff: is Statistic Canada’s term for the income threshold below which a family devotes a larger share
of its income to the necessities of food, shelter, and clothing than an average family would, likely resulting
in straitened circumstances
Global inequality: refers to differences in the economic ranking of countries
Cross-national variations in internal stratification: are differences among countries in their stratification systems
The Gini index: is a measure of income inequality. Its value ranges from zero (which means that every household
earns exactly the same amount of money) to one (which means that all income is earned by a single
household)
Social stratification: refers to the way in which society is organized in layers or strata
Ascription-based stratification: one in which the allocation of rank depends on characteristics a person is born with
Achievement-based stratification: one in which the allocation of rank depends on a person’s accomplishments
Social mobility: refers to movement up or down the stratification system
Caste system: is an almost pure ascription-based stratification system in which occupations and marriage partners
are assigned on the basis of caste membership
Apartheid: was a caste system based on race that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1992. It consigned the large
black majority to menial jobs, prevented marriage between blacks and whites, and erected separate public
facilities for members of the two races. Asians and people of mixed race enjoyed privileges b/w these two
extremes
Feudalism: was a legal arrangement in preindustrial Europe that bound peasants to the land and obliged them to
give their landlords a set part of the harvest. In exchange, landlords were required to protect peasants from
marauders and open their storehouses to feed the peasants if crops failed
Class consciousness: refers to being aware of membership in a class
Class: in Marx’s sense of the term, is determined by a person’s relationship to the means of production, In Weber’s
usage, class is determined by a person’s “market situation”
Bourgeoisie: in Marx’s usage are owners of the means of production, including factories, tools, and land. They do
not do any physical labour. Their income derives from profits
Proletariat: in Marx’s usage, is the working class. Members of the proletariat do physical labour but do not own
means of production. They are thus in a position to earn wages
Petitie bourgeoisie: in Marx’s usage, is the class of small-scale capitalists who own means of production but
employ only a few workers or none at all, forcing them to do physical work themselves
Status groups: differ from one another in terms of the prestige or social honour they enjoy and also in terms of
their style of life
Parties: in Weber’s usage, are organizations that seek to impose their will on others
The Functional theory of stratification: argues that (1) some jobs are more important than others are, (2) people
must make sacrifices to train important jobs, and (3) inequality is required to motivate people to undergo
these sacrifices
Power: is the ability to impose one’s will on others
Authority: is legitimate institutionalized power
Intragenerational mobility: is social mobility that occurs w/n a single generation
Intergenerational mobility: is social mobility that occurs b/w generations
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