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ADMS 2320 (42)


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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2320
Douglas Kong

Chapter 551 In an observational study there is no attempt to control factors that might influence the variable of interest In an experimental study a factor such as regular use of a fitness center is controlled by randomly selecting who is exposed to that factor thereby reducing the influence of other factors on the variable of interest52a The study is observational The statistics practitioner did not randomly assign stores to buy cans or bottlesb Randomly assign some stores to receive only cans and others to receive only bottles53 Randomly sample smokers and nonsmokers and compute the proportion of each group that has lung cancerb The study is observational Experimental data would require the statistics practitioner to randomly assign some people to smoke and others not to smoke54a A survey can be conducted by means of a personal interview a telephone interview or a selfadministered questionnaireb A personal interview has a high response rate relative to other survey methods but is expensive because of the need to hire welltrained interviewers and possibly pay travelrelated costs if the survey is conducted over a large geographicalarea A personal interview also will likely result in fewer incorrect responses that arise when respondents misunderstand some questions A telephone interview is less expensive but will likely result in a lower response rate A selfadministered questionnaire is least expensive but suffers from lower response rates and accuracy than interviews55 Five important points to consider when designing a questionnaire are as follows1 The questionnaire should be short2 Questions should be short clearly worded and unambiguous3 Consider using dichotomous or multiplechoice questions but take care that respondents neednt make unspecified assumptions before answering the questions4 Avoid using leading questions5 When preparing the questions think about how you intend to tabulate and analyze the responses153
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