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ADMS 2610 Week 1 Jan 9th, 2014.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2610
William Pomerantz

ADMS 2610 Lecture 1 Thursday, January 9, 2014 The Canadian Legal System Sources of Law 1. Common Law a. Case law b. “Stare decisis” c. Precedent i. In order to get around precedent, you must distinguish the facts d. Not civil law 2. Equity – Merged with Common law in the late 19th century a. 15th century b. Courts of Chancery c. Less rigid, fairness 3. Statutes (legislation) ­ Parliament a. Constitution b. Federal, provincial, municipal c. Administrative law Three sources of law will be referred to throughout the course. Classification of Laws Substantive law vs. Procedural law Substantive law: • Public Law (individual vs gov’t) o Criminal Code, Income tax, Hghway traffic • Private Law (Between individual) o Torts, contracts, property, corporate Procedural law (Procedures to enforce substantive laws) is: • Criminal procedure 1 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] • Civil procedure o Contracts o Torts Canada’s Constitution 1. British North America Act (1867) a. Fed Gov’t (s.91) i. Trade and Commerce ii. Criminal Law iii. Bankruptcy & insolvency iv. Taxation v. Post vi. Divorce vii. Defense viii. Immigration ix. Peace, order and gov’t x. Residual powers (if not listed in provinces’ jurisdiction, then  belong to federal jurisdiction) b. Provinces (s. 92) i. Education ii. Property and Civil Rights iii. Health Care c. Municipal (Created by the provinces; not constitutionally protected) i. Land use ii. Police iii. Fire iv. Garbage 2. Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982) – “Supreme law” that protects us from the  government and its agents 2 ADMS 2610 Lecture 1 Thursday, January 9, 2014 a. Rights (ss. 2­15) i. Fundamental freedoms s.2 (religion, expression, peaceful  assembly, association) ii. Democratic rights (vote) s. 3­5 iii. Mobility rights s.6 (work/live in any province) iv. Legal rights s. 7­14 (right to be presumed innocent until proven  guilty, right to counsel, right to be tried within reasonable time) v. Equality s. 15 (no discrimination on basis of race, ethnicity, colour,  religion, gender, age, physical or mental disability) b. Limitations (ss. 1, 33) i. S.1 – Justified infringement (subject “to reasonable limits as can be  demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society”) e.g. laws  on defamation, hate literature and RIDE program ii. S. 33 – “notwithstanding clause” (gov’t can override legislation  that infringes certain sections of Charter) e.g. sign language law in  Quebec  ▯French text must be larger than English text on any sign c. Changes to Constitution i. Req’ “special majority” (7/10 provinces with 50% of population) d. In general, the government will pass a law and someone will be in trouble  with the law, and someone will attack the law saying it is unconstitutional  and infringed upon their rights and usually the plaintiff will be acquitted,  striking out the laws i. After law passed, may or may not be upheld depending on how it  is challenged Why is the separation of powers (federal and provincial) potentially important to  business? Criminal Civil Purpose Punish Restitution Deter Compensate Victim Complainant Plaintiff Bad guy Accused Defendant Guilty/Not guilty Liable/Not liable 3 [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] Lawyers Accused: Own lawyer Both parties have own  Complainant: Crown  lawyers attorney on behalf of state Jury Sometimes, by choice, if  5­6 juries indictable offense  ▯12  juries must be unanimous Timing Speedy relative to civil  Slow (3­5 years); no  (reasonable amount of time) Charter issues and timing 
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