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Lecture 2

ADMS 2400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Organisation Climate, Job Performance, Specific Performance


Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Professor
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon
Lecture
2

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Chapter 2 - Job Performance
- Understanding one's own performance is critical concern for an employee;
understanding performance of one's unit is critical concern for any manager
- Performance as Results: results more objective, more connected to bottom line;
creates problem because results often influenced by factors that are beyond the
employee's control; performance feedback based on results does not generally
provide enough information to learn what is needed to change to improve
- Performance as Behaviour: better option, outcomes associated with behaviours
termed "job performance results"
- Value of the set of employee behaviours that contribute, either positively or
negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment
Task Performance
- Employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of
organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization
produces; set of explicit obligations that an employee must fulfill to receive
compensation and continued employment
- Routine Task Performance: well-known responses to demands that occur in a
normal or predictive way; employees tend to act in habitual or programmed ways
that vary little from one instance to another
- Adaptive Task Performance: adaptability; employee responses to task demands
that are unusual or unpredictable; becoming increasingly important due to the
pace of change in the workplace from globalization, technological advances,
knowledge-intensive work
- Job Analysis: process by which an organization determines requirements of
specific jobs
- A list of all the activities involved in the job is generated; data collected from
several sources (observations, surveys, interviews)
- Each activity rated by "subject matter experts" according to importance and
frequency of activity; subject matter experts have experience performing the job
or managing those that perform the job, can judge the degree to which specific
activities contribute
- Activities rated highly in terms of importance and frequency are retained and
used to define task performance; retained behaviours find their way into the
measures that managers use to evaluate the task performance of employees
- National Occupational Classification (NOC): nationally accepted reference on
occupations in Canada; used daily by thousands to compile, analyze and
communicate information about occupations, as well as to understand the jobs
found throughout Canada's labour market; cannot capture the unique task
requirements that organizations ask their employees to perform to differentiate
from competitors,
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numerous small decisions indiscernible; though it is a good place to start, should
be supported with information regarding behaviours that support the
organization's values and strategies
- Task performance behaviours are not simply performed vs. not performed; poor
performers often fail to complete required behaviours, best performers exceed all
expectations for behaviours; most valuable employees in any organization are
those who "go the extra mile", engaging in levels of task performance previously
unheard of
Citizenship Behaviour
- Voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded but that
contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting in
which work takes place; two main categories that differ according to who benefits
from the activity: coworkers or the organization
- Interpersonal Citizenship Behaviour: benefit coworkers and colleagues; involve
assisting, supporting and developing relationships with other organizational
members ways that goes beyond normal job expectations; especially important in
contexts where employees work in small groups/teams, creates a positive team
atmosphere where members trust one another, encourage team members to
work together towards a common goal as opposed to self-serving ones
- Helping: assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with
personal matters and showing new employees new ropes when they first arrive
on the job
- Courtesy: keeping coworkers informed about matters that are relevant to them;
keep others in the loop because they never know what information might be
useful to someone else
- Sportsmanship: maintaining a good attitude with coworkers even when they
have done something annoying or when the unit is going through tough times;
avoid whining and complaining
- Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: benefit the larger organization by
supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations and
being especially loyal to it
- Voice: speaking up and offering constructive suggestions for change; trying to
change bad rules/policies instead of passively complaining about them
- Civic Virtue: participating in the company's operations at a deeper-than-normal
level by attending the voluntary meetings and functions, reading and keeping up
with organizational announcements, and keeping abreast of business news that
affects the company
- Boosterism: representing the organization in a positive way when out in public,
away from the office, away from work
- Relevant to virtually any job, clear benefits of these behaviours in terms of the
effectiveness of work units and organizations; citizenship behaviours have a
significant influence on the bottom line
- Citizenship behaviour has been found to influence the salary and promotion
recommendations received; although citizenship behaviour is technically optional
compared to task behaviour, many supervisors treat it as mandatory
Counterproductive Behaviour
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- Employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organization goal
accomplishment
- Property Deviance: behaviours that harm the organization's assets and
possessions
- Sabotage: purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational processes or
company products
- Theft: research suggests that 47 percent of store inventory shrinkage die to
employee theft
- Production Deviance: focuses on reducing the efficiency of work output
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