ANTH 1120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cultural Universal, Pastoralism, Heteronormativity

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14 Aug 2016
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the global economy
bormann -> caring and being
cared for
attempts to find universals i.e.
socioevolution in which humans
characterized by society. Failed,
too complex to fit into schema.
No way to describe labour
practices etc. However, one
thing persisted—> kinship,
every human did. Followed
same rules. aLL humans on
earth appear to do descent and
alliance.
1970s: complicated by gender
studies. How gender and sex
relate to kinship. Sexuality deriv.
of marriage. Prestige and
power; informed ideas about
gender; and gender was part of
kinship networks, and kinship
networks determined sexual
activity, and sexual activity was
wrapped in considerations of
marriage.
early anthros. believed
protection of family was innate
in all humans. everything was
served to maintain protection of
family unit. Problem : sexist and
heteronormative. didn’t ask
underlying questions.
never as simple as things seem
to be. three interventions: 1)
Power, gender, kinship,
marriage and sex are cultural
concepts. One is not more
important than the other: there
is no hierarchy, order or fixed
connection between them.
2) we must pay attention to
variation, not just examples that
conform to our expectations.
Looking at the norm
reproduces a privileged position
that discriminates against
variation.
3) anthropology’s drive to find
universals has privileged
communal forms of
reproduction at the expense of
an understanding of care and
being cared for.
point: to suggest that we’ve
been looking for the wrong kind
of universals. Kinship is sandard
is not just scientific claim but a
moral claim, should not make
moral claims for rest of world.
more appropriate to talk about
caring as a human universal.
case study: two men in
germany wanted to get married,
not legal so instead of getting
married opted for adoption.
older man adopted younger
man. judge in germany saw
through this, saw it as marriage
arrangement. obstacle: men
would be breaking incest taboo.
men has to argue that they
were in relationship that didn’t
involve sex. this would allow
union to fit heterosexual norms
while permitting these two men
to access the same privileges
to other couples. adoption was
the other only way to create
descent. adoption creates
kinship bonds and comes rules
with them. two men had to lie,
by granting them the adoption
the jude established public
secret: laws and rules aren’t
fixed and eternal. marriage is a
piece of paper, what constitutes
it is actually care.
this case was anthropologically
problematic. this couple broke
every rule we thought was
universal. Their relation had
same elements of marriage and
parentage i.e. caring and being
cared for. HUMANS are not
blind followers of rules,
experiment and push
boundaries. Anthros should
highlight creativity rather than
rules.
point of article: insofar as
kinship is about caring, it still
appears to be a human
universal. However 1) the
meaning of kinship differs from
group to group and person to
person and 2) kinship is not
static but changes over time
both at the individual and social
level.
key ideas from clip:
the bigger the risk, the higher
your prestige status in finances.
economy is created, not stable
and not static. people who run
it claim to understand it better
than everyone else. the smarter
the better an economist you
are. modern economy—>
about generating wealth for a
select number of people (wall
street), not for creating social
stability. Corporations and
states are closely related but
relationship is uncertain.
corporation don’t exist outside
of the state in any way.
1. what is an economy, and
what’s it for? 2. what are the
roots of today’s global
economy? 3. What role has
colonialism played in formed
the modern world economic
system? 4. what is the
relationship
roots of global economy. early
long distance trade routes:
sailed from spain in search for
route to asia. symbolic for the
global economy. but in reality it
was thriving 200 years before in
asia. later in 1400 china
emerges as a global economic
powerhouse. Used to send
ships to. china’s predominance
to inspired european elites to
connect to chine to get access.
china needs very little from the
west. chinese only wants gold
and silver, so europeans set to
find gold and silver. local
populations into slave labour to
get these resources. between
1500 and 1800 supply of gold
and silver increased 18 times.
all of this flows to china
eventually in 1800 europeans
want to keep the gold and silver
so changed to military action.
colonialism: the practice by
which a nation state extends
political, economic and military
power beyond its own borders
over an extended period of time
to secure access to raw
materials, cheap labour and
markets in other countries or
regions.
when they tried to gain access
to resources they used military.
eventually setting up of the
trade triangle: the exchange of
slaves, sugar cotton and fur
between Europe, Africa and
Americas. it was disrupted by
the industrial revolution. 18th to
19th century change to
machine based manufacturing.
industrial revolution demanded:
resources, cheap labour, open
markets.
this produces class inequality,
killed of small scale agricultural
and increase social
differentiation, shift from urban
to rural. global economy was
still miltarized, global markets
still secured by military. nations
divided by competitors and
markets. growth of social
difference, rich got richer etc.
rich needed poor to remain
poor to continue to profit. state:
mining access to markets
abroad so increase of social
differences.
capitalist system: produced
colonization. in 1885 berlin
negotiation of settlement in
competition for african
resources. Many countries cut
up africa into 15 colonies. led to
end of colonial system due to
pressure against colonization.
at least what we thought…
colonization didn’t disappear
completely, just transformed so
after ww2 developed nations
decided they’d help developing
nation to promote stability.
development schemes: post
ww2 strategy of wealthy nations
to spur global economic
growth, alleviate poverty, and
raise living standards through
strategic investment
these interventions did not work
since inequality created to
create wealth for colonizers.
colony had no interest in
disrupting these patterns. social
division have been created.
stabilize particular areas and to
stabilize farming population in
order to continue the flow of
products into the west. now
corporations are doing this so
result: as corporations grew,
exerted more power over policy
makers 2)off shore businesses
expanded in order to bypass
regulation.
nation states have failed at
global economy game.
corporation find that prof can
be made in old colonial centres
and took resources from these
colonies. corporation demand
access to labours and
materials. eventually the
establishment of institutions :
international trade agreements:
NAFTA and Asia-Pacific Trade
agreement (APTA) these have
create storm policiy framework
so small places can be part of
global economy.
neoliberalism: an economic and
political worldview that sees the
free market as the main
mechanism for ensuring
economic growth, with a
severely restricted role for
government. inequality is need
for neoliberalism to exist.
effects: world more connected,
world has become more
unequal and more dangerous.
people resist due to poverty,
corruption has exploded.
turmoil has occurred in
societies that were colonized.
underdevelopment: term used
to suggest that poor countries
are poor as a result of their
relationship to an unbalanced
global economic system.
neocolonialism: continued
pattern of unequal economic
relations despite the formal end
of colonial political and military
control.
dependency theory: a critique
of development that argued,
despite the end of colonialism
economy: a cultural adaptation
to the environment that enables
are group of humans to use the
available resources to satisfy
their needs and to thrive.
to help collectively meet the
needs of the community. A
pattern of relationships and
institutions. collective need of
community.
strategies vary but share
common goals of providing
material for consumption.
provide the basis for modern
consumption-based economy.
People produce something for
others to consume in order to
live. six kinds of early economic
systems
pastoralism, horticulture and
agriculture. all about food
production. food strategies led
to settlements that facilitated
trades.
agriculture: intensive farming
strategy for food producing
involving preanently cultivated
land. requires irrigation,
fertilization, machinery, animals
that out stuff. production
enough food to satisfy and
create surplus to be traded or
sold. catalyst for agriculture not
sure but consequences are
fixing of populations and growth
populations. intensive in non
industrial centres led to social
stratification. class systems
emerge. Social distinctions—>
large land owners, wealthy
merchants, peasants, wage
labourers.
industrial agriculture: farming
practices involving
mechanization and mass
production. recent years a rise,
involved mechanization of
farming and massive production
of food stock. large corporate
run farms that rely of use of
fertilizeers etc. pressure to
increase food production
intensifies with rise of
populations. but unequal food
distribution leads to some areas
to starvation even though
there’s enough food. over past
50 years, have changed rules of
farmers and peasants. farms
owned by corporations, have
pushed small scale farmers off
the land in order to mechanize
the fields. result: fewer people
work in agriculture and displace
populations look for wage
labour. produces
unemployment but increases
food production.
climate change and population
growth restrains food supplies.
the rich nations buying land in
other nations, ensures export to
supplement their own
populations. what is the limit?
how many people can world
support? carrying capacity?
distribution and exchange: local
from global, all cultures have
developed patterns for
distribution and exchange of
goods. this is important to
culture. three main patterns of
exchange:
market exchange: trading
goods and services, today, for
money. rages in size from village
to wall street systems. recent:
medium of exchange has varied
i.e. precious stones have
served to make payments, for
money. other kinds of exchang
reciprocity: gift giving and
receiving and redistribution:
centralizing wealth and giving it
away equally. not modes of
exchange that belong in the
past but happen today i.e.
bailouts, bonuses: increases
motivation.
horticulture: cultivation of plants
for subsistence through non-
intensive use of land and labour.
not creating land, just creating
plots. clear land (plots) to
cultivate. the people here do
not move a lot and use simple
tools. combined with hunting
gatherers and pastorlism.
pastoralism: strategy for food
production involving the
domestication of animals.
herders moving live stocks
seasonally.
food foraging: humans who
subsist by hunting, fishing and
gathering plants to eat.
egalitarian groups that follow
movement of animals. have
ranged over variety of habitat.
few from 250 000 people that
do not forge food. live in
marginal of earth’s
environments where other
economic productivity is not
sustainable. 1) the khun
bushmen.
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