SEX LOVEAND MARRIAGE
LECTURE 2 SEPTEMBER 21ST 2011
➔ Essays: minimum of one class article, plus 6 anthropology journal articles or books
➔ NO TEXTBOOKS. But...you can refer to textbooks to find other, appropriate sources.
➔ 6 sources include: periodicals/journals, edited books, ethnographies
➔ Also, you may include newspaper articles, magazines, internet sites and blogs
➔ Articles must be peer reviewed
➔ What is an anthropological source?Appears in an anthropology journal, book/article is written by
someone who labels themselves as an anthropologist
➔ Use: anthrosource, anthropology plus, bibliographies of recentARTICLES, GOOGLE
SCHOLAR, KEYWORD SEARCH ON LIBRARYSITE
➔ LIBRARY, CLICKANTHROPOLOGY, CLICK FINDARTICLES, CLICK FIRSTTWO,
➔ WORKSHOP FOR ROUGH DRAFT OF PAPER IS ON NOVEMBER 16TH!!
➔ LASTWEEK: nature/nurture debate in anthro
➔ Problematic role of science in promoting the body and human behaviours as natural
➔ Nature theories helped along by evolutionary thinkers (Darwinism)
➔ Applying his work to human societies
➔ Herbert Spencer: misappropriated a lot of this work
➔ Proving the naturalness of human behaviours and bodies: By using evolutionary paradigms to
explain human behaviour and through animal studies
➔ Evolutionary paradigms to “prove” naturalness of gender
➔ Gender: culturally constructed
➔ PhysicalAnthro: family Hominidae (humans, ancestors, fossils of precursors to homosapiens)
➔ “Man the Hunter”; “Woman the Gatherer”
➔ 1968 “Man the Hunter”-distinction in terms of labour. Men did hunting in industrialized and pre
industrialized societies. This leads them to suggest and believe that there must be a biological
reason for this and that this must be adaptive in some evolutionary sense so they argued that in
most societies men did the hunting while women collected wild foods and plants.
➔ Washburn and Lancaster in 1960's-1970's-Argued that hunting by our ancestors would mean you
would have to be bipedal (see over great distances and give you a measure of personal safety),
tools can be made, which increased brain size, large animals can be hunted/slaughtered, hunting
parties-needed language to communicate as a group. Hunting- needs great deal of planning, need
to coordinate roles.Argued- that this activity would lead to the gradual development of language.
Developing human-like sorts of traits.
➔ Critiques by feminist scholars: Sally Slocum: it is a male bias theory because it ignores the role of
women in evolution. She says: while the men were out hunting inventing everything and
developing the poor females were at home having one child after another. This would imply that
only the males developed. They did not make this same argument with women gathering because
at the time it was a male dominated society. Women as gatherers need to be bipedal and develop
skills over time. She argues that they over estimated the protein consumption of hominids then.
Today, most of their diet consists of gathered foods. 1970's diets were all about meat and very
little about vegetables.
➔ Problems: universalizing narrative: oversimplified explanation
➔ Example: men in all societies are the ones who do the hunting BUT women do hunt ➔ REFER TO MAN THE HUNTER PPT SLIDE
➔ Hunting is being taken up as a hobby among women
➔ Therefore, we cannot make a universal claim about the naturalness of gender roles. These
scholars are taking their own values and imposing them
➔ Argued that hunting stimulated hominid evolution
➔ In this family, some scholars include the great apes: chimps gorillas etc
➔ Hominids: sexual dimorphism
➔ Habitual bipedalism (walking at least some of the time by 2 feet)
➔ Gender role distinctions among humans and human ancestors
➔ Did our male ancestors dominate over women?Are the gender distinctions in our society the
same as animals (apes and so on) and our ancestors
➔ PROBLEMS WITH NATURE SLIDE
➔ race itself is rooted with biological distinctions
➔ Intelligence is not only genetic but related to racial difference
➔ Human behaviours are somehow linked to biology
➔ Eugenics: manipulating human genes to improve a population's gene pool
➔ Getting rid of those whom are seen as a problem or less desirable
➔ Eugenics: coined by Francis Galton (half cousin of Charles Darwin)
➔ He coined the term nature versus nurture
➔ He was interested in appropriating Darwin's ideas to discuss social evolution: Is intelligence
hereditary? Psychometrics was another interest.
➔ Example: mass sterilization initiatives (i.e. Hitler)
➔ Nazi party passed a law for diseased offspring. This gave them the po