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Lecture 17

BCHM 2020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Warehouse, Citric Acid Cycle, Amine


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BCHM 2020
Professor
Terrance Kubiseski
Lecture
17

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Metabolism
Sum total of all of the chemical reactions in the human body
It a balance in the body between the reactions that build things up and the reactions
that break things down
Anabolism : repairing/building or storing things in the body
Catabolism : breaking downs chemicals and things for energy in body
Carbohydrates-sugars, an example is glucose
Glucose is broken down into a compound called pyruvate
Then this pyruvate is broken down into a molecule which is very important for the
body called acetyl-coA
The acetyl-coA moves around a cycle called the Krebs cycle forming different
compounds, things are bounced off during the formation of these compounds and
they are known as high-energy carriers. Then these high-energy carriers are bounced
off a staircase called the electron transport chain. And as they go down the ETC, they
give off a chemical called ATP. ATP is the energy currency for our body (ATP =
energy). During this process along with ATP, water (H2O) is also given off. In order
for the Krebs cycle to move on, oxygen (O2) is required and carbon dioxide (CO2) and
water is released.
Catabolism:
We have proteins in our diet that get broken down by our digestive tract into unit
parts called amino acids. And depending on what kind of amino acid it is, it can enter
the Krebs cycle either by being added with the pyruvate or by adding with the acetyl-
coA. And when the amino acid makes the transition of being added into the Krebs
cycle by either of the way mentioned above it give off something called the amino
group (amine). Then amines become one of the waste products in our urine.
We have fats in our body that are made up of a glycerol backbone and longs chains of
fatty acids. When the body needs to break the fats in our body, the fatty acids enter
Krebs cycle through the acetyl-coA, whereas the glycerol backbone gets added to
Krebs cycle through pyruvate.
Hormones in our body control the balance between the anabolic and the catabolic
reactions.
Several hormone lead to the breakdown (catabolic reactions) of our tissues. For
example, glucagon breaks down glycogen. Other hormones include the fight or flight
hormones, which are epinephrine hormones. Glucocorticoids, the stress hormones in
our body.
Anabolism:
The amino acids in our diet used to make muscle and lean tissues in our bodies. They
can be used as repair and protein carries in our blood.
The glucose in our body can be stored as the glycogen, which is the stored form of
carbohydrate in our body.
The fats we’ve eaten, if there are too many of those in or diet, they get stored as
adipose tissue
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