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BIOL 2900
Malini Persaud

How to make a vaccine: vaccination stategies Natural: exposure to sub-clinical infections Artifical: attenuated organisms, killed organisms sub cellular, toxins/toxoids, small fragments and DNA vaccine Attenuation: the virulent parents virus becomes the LIVE attenuated vaccine. - live is the ability to replicate in host cells - Rabies now days are killed bacteria vaccine but when it was made in 1885 it was live. Live attenuated vaccine - the virus in the vaccine must be “alive”: to replicate in the vaccinee’s cells  Storage: OPV with vaccine vial monitor.  Maternal antibodies: Ab from the mom to the newborn before birth. The baby is born with enough Ab to fight pathogens. Antibodies will stay 3-6months maximum. If your rejecting measels vaccine, those Ab will kill vaccine and it will kill so that’s why vaccines are given after 6 months from the date of birth. This is why you wait 12 months  Risk for back mutation: keep in mind the risk. Stoped from using attenuated vaccine aganist polio because there’s a chance that it will fight back. Smallpox vaccine is the same as before.  The attenuated virus can infect non vaccinated people  Better herd immunity (polio), its vaccinating not only you but those around you as well who are exposed to the bacteria.  Risk to immuno-comprimised people (influenza). You don’t want old people to be exposed to be attenuated vaccine WHY? . Use nasal sprays. They can be suspected to be influenza virus so you avoid exposing them to attenuated virus. Pregnant women don’t get attenuated virus because we don’t know how it will affect the baby.  18 and 12 month year old for chickenpox vaccine. When your 16, CDC vaccine with higher dose?  The virus must be alive so it can replicate in your systems. Live attenuated Vaccine - MMR: measles, mumps & rubella  Affects babies during the first semester. o Mumps: lead to complications. MMP vaccine for mumps isn’t that effective, measles 90% and rubella is high as well. o Measeles: biggest problem. Virus that cause long term effects.  RNA viruses but genetically stable because the mutations reduce their ability to survive.  No back mutation, safe vaccine for everybody.  Human host only. Measles killed a lot of people (look up some stats)  Influenza since 2003  For healthy and young  Polio (Sabin)  Using the drop to the mouth. Its to mimic the normal infection, the virus goes to your stomach and hut moving towards the bladder.  LIVE ATTENTUNATED  POLIO SALK IS KILLED (recent one)  Varicella Zoster (affects you in two parts of your life. Child and adulthood)  Chicken pox in kids  Get the vaccine atleast once to avoid shingles. You might even get some boosters for chicken pox  Shingles in adults (>60years) Killed and subcellular vaccines - the virulent parental virus. For ex. Formalin deteregent leads to inactivated (killed) vaccine - virions inactivated by chemical procedures. Its biological. - infectivity and viral ability to replicate are eliminated but antigencitiy is not compromised. Killed Vaccine - Polio (Salk)  At present: very common use because attenuated vaccine is casuing problems. 8/year is enough to change the direction of the vaccination.  Influenza o new strain every year. You uses membranes out of the virus for the vaccine  Hepatitis A o Virus that you get infected with contamination.  Hep.B  Modern rabies vaccine o Killed vaccine o Even post exposure in most cases. o In rabies, viruses wants to live in the neurons and always transfer through neuronal cells.  Hepatitis C o Out of the vaccination community Bacterial Exotoxins - bacterial proteins (enzymes) - destroys host cellular structures - A-B toxins: A: active (virulent part) A can cause the damages B: bindig, binding proteins that affects the cell surface. - make vaccines that kill the binding site (B) Modification of toxin to toxoid - Active (A) and Binding (B)  through chemical modification  makes the A not active leaving the B binding site there - with genetic engineering, you can ONLY make the B or the binding protein and you inject that into the body which will make Ab against the B Toxoids: inactivated toxin 1) Diphtheria 2) Tetanus - 35% in normal flora. In the bacteriophage, it can infect the bacteria. The bacteriophage isn’t destroy the cell. It can intergrat ein the genome of the bacteria and stay there forever as long as the cells can replicate. The bacteriophage can produce toxins against other others. Diphteria toxins created by the bacteriophage causes the problem. Bacteriophage is responsible for human disease (virus bacteriophage) - immunize every year Small Fragment -hep.B makes proteins tat Ab can combine to - when virus is infecting people it makes a lot of proteins. You can find those proteins in the blood that’s not attached to anything. F - Fractionation purified subunit vaccine - the viulent parental virus cloning using yeast/bacterial cell either fractionation OR expression purified subunit vaccine Hep.B virus: a fragment virus - Antigen: HBsAg - first generation vaccine: extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients. - Today: cloned in yeast. Hep.B can be prevented, the first vaccine against cancer - Hep.B affects liver carcinoma, it is also a Kill vaccine HPV vaccine - made out of the cupsif of the vaccine, the genome is inside. MMR and varcella should be careful because newborns are Ab from mo
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