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Lecture 2

BIOL 3500 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 Notes

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BIOL 3500

Patterns of Distribution One of the biogeographers tasks is to study and explain the distributions and ranges of organisms AND what limits them Range the permanent area occupied by a particular species Two species can have very similar distributions and ranges, yet occupy very different habitats E.g. bald eagle and lake trout o Both have found across NA (very similar ranges), but trout are found in water and eagles on land Endemic distribution when a species range is limited to a very specific geographic area e.g. An island, a country (scaledependent statement) Cosmopolitan distribution when a species range extends around the world in appropriate habitats e.g. Rats, people, flies Relict distribution when a species range was widespread in the past, but is now restricted i.e. May have been a cosmopolitan species, but is now an endemic species o could be result of change in conditions, etc. Limits of species distribution and range: 1. PhysicalAbiotic factors nonliving physical and chemical components of environment a. Physical barriers e.g. mountains or bodies of water b. Climactic barriers e.g. not able to survive at certain temperatures, light abailability, moisture, etc. c. Geologysoil chemistry e.g. not able to survive in an alkaline, salty, acidic environment, etc. d. Habitat barriers e.g. 2. BiologicalBiotic factors living components of environment a. Biological barriers e.g. interactions with other organisms such as predation, competition 3. Chance a. Disturbances e.g. fires, wind 4. Historical factors e.g. a species history or origin may limit the present distribution Limits of species ranges (overlap with ^: 1. Physical environment e.g. light availability, salinity, 2. Biological interactions e.g. predation, parasitism, competition 3. Disturbances e.g. fires, wind
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