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May 18.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 4510
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
5/18/2012 6:18:00 AM Cell Physiology 1. Cell Structure and Cellular Metabolism References Textbook Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. 2nd Canadian Edition Chapter 2, pages 22-32 Tutorials http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1551/1588666/web_tut/03_05/ nav/03_05.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2f7YwCtHcgk&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FE2jfTXAJHg&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juM2ROSLWfw&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfgCcFXUZRk&feature=related Lecture Outline Principles of Cell Theory Observation of Cells Overview of Cell Structure Cellular Metabolism Substrate Level Phosphorylation Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Tricarboxylic Cycle Electron Transport Chain Cell theory: Life stems from the complex organization & interactions of the chemicals within cells All known living things are made up of cells o The cell is the structural & functional unit of all living things. o Cells are the living building blocks of whole bodies All cells come from pre-existing cells by division (no spontaneous generation). o Thus the cells of all organisms are fundamentally similar in structure & function o All cells are basically the same in chemical composition o All cells perform similar metabolic functions (some cells are specialized) Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. o This is what allows for life to evolve. Evolution is done here. Allows for mutation and evolution For those interested: http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/unity/cell.text.htm Cells are small The Discovery of Cells followed the invention of the MICROSCOPE- cells werent known until we were able to see this level with a microscope. o Compound microscope- a series of lenses One of the first compound microscopes created by the end of 16th century by Zacharias Janssen o Hand-held microscope focus by sliding (like a telescope) o Several lenses (i.e., compound ) o Magnifying images 3 to 10 times Cells divide instead of growing larger to LIMIT their Surface Area to Volume Ratios. Cells need to be small because it makes their getting their food and getting rid of wastes more efficient. The SA of a cell is its cell membrane Cells need a surface area large enough to allow adequate nutrients to enter and rid itself of wastes As cell gets larger, Vol increases faster than SA volume increases in cubes while SA is squared. SA increase 4X - but Vol increase 8X SA/Vol ratio decreases Less surface area for nutrient/waste diffusion Cells get around this problem by: Dividing Getting thinner Forming microvilli Storing nutrients i.e., chicken egg can be bigger Microvilli- may be found in the folds of the cell membrane. Made possible when have greater surface area. Overview of Cell Structure Different cells share many common features Cells in humans are highly organized structures that have 3 BASIC PARTS o Plasma membrane - encloses the cell Selective barrier between cellular contents and extracellular fluid Regulates what comes in & leaves the cell o Nucleus - Stores and encloses the DNA (genetic info) protects DNA from the cytoplasm Usually the largest organelle o Cytoplasm - portion of cell interior NOT occupied by nucleus. consists of: Organelles - distinct, highly organized, membrane- enclosed structures
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