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CHEM 2020 Fall 2011 Course Kit part 1.pdf

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CHEM 2020
Michael Organ

thth7ed Chapters 12Structure BondingPropertiesWade 6Structure BondingPropertiesAtomic HybridizationLewis Structuresused to symbolize covalent bondingwith paired dotsor dashesbetween atoms to represent covalent bonds2 shared e singlebond or4 shared e doublebond or6 shared e triplebond orand paired dotsfor nonbondingelectron pairs lone pairs examplesatoms are arranged to have noble gas valence electron totals2 for H He8 for row 2 elements B C N O F Ne18 for row 3 elements Al Si P S Cl Arnumber of bonds to neutral elementselements valenceunivalent alkyl and aryl groups are frequently symbolized by RArLewis structures only relateconnectivitynot structureAtomic Orbitalssorbitalsarespherical porbitalsare octahedrallydisposedbut bonds in molecules are not spherically nor octahedrallydisposedHybridizationby Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion VSEPR Theory bonding nonbonding epairs repel each otherstay as far away as possible from each otherto do this orbitalscan hybridizeto givehybridorbitalsas linear combinationsof atomic orbitalsLCAOonesorbital and oneporbital can form 2equivalentsporbitals2onesorbital and twoporbitalscan form 3equivalentsporbitals3onesorbital and threeporbitalscan form 4equivalentsporbitals5
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