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Lecture 14

CRIM 1650 Lecture 14: Morality and Crime (Part 2)

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CRIM 1650
James Williams

Morality and Crime (Part 2) (wwek 5 – Feb 7) Politics and Criminal Justice Policy: “The War on Drugs” (Cont)  Conclusion: the war on drugs was nothing but a failure 4. Effects  Produced a range of negative side effects and consequences (both intentional and not) o COST: the war on drugs has been expensive  An expensive war to wage in many countries – mostly in the US  1980-1990: an increase in financial expenditures and cost on the war on drugs  anti-drug efforts (19 billion – 1992)  1982-1992 an increase =  estimated 40 agencies were programmed to wage the war on drugs* o Explosion of the prison population:  Mostly occurred in the 1980’s  Incarceration rate tripled between 1980-1995  1980-2013: the federal prison population increased by 790% ????  this is due to the increase of fairly minor drug offences (possession not trafficking) – mostly possession of marijuana  1984-2011 average drug sentences increased from 39 months to 74 months o Systemic discrimination and the war on people of colour  The impact of drug policy on racial groups  Racial discrimination and the war on drugs  Nature of law: controls drug distribution and trafficking  Discrepancy in sentencing due to the new regime of mandatory minimum sentences  Ex. Crack cocaine (3-8 x longer) vs. powder cocaine  One gram of crack = 100 grams of powder cocaine  U can have more powder cocaine for the min. sentence of possession of crack  Racial connotation and association with these two drugs which forms different approaches (one more sever and more punitive than the other)  Fair sentencing act – decreased this stigma  Over policing and racial profiling is routed in police discretion and vague and ambiguous legal concepts  The was policy is interpreted and applied  Race plays an important role is who’s more likely to be suspicious which supports police actions (racial profiling)  Disproportionate rates of arrest  Young black men = 42% of incarceration for drug offences (US)  This circumstance persists that majority of drug users are actually white, 72% = white, 15% = black, the rest are smthn else o Punishment = disproportionate  Disproportionate rates of arrest have impacted women of colour specifically o 1986-1991: 828% increase in state incarceration for drug charges and African American women o Police deviance and corruption  Distinction between deviance and police corruption  Police Deviance: misconduct undertaken for the benefit of the organization/institution to further its core goals of combatting crime and putting criminals in jail o Ex. Drug cases: police cases can take different forms such as planting drugs to ensure conviction and sustain the charge o Ex. the testimony is altered???  Police Corruption: misconduct undertake for the benefit of the individual officer (primarily financial gain) o Ex. acceptance of bribes and kickbacks, direct participation in the drug trade, and theft of money, drugs, or other proceeds from drug sales o Toronto 2013: drug squad were convicted of smthn o Creation of drug dependant economies  Third world economics – drug trade in developing countries sustains their economies  Essentially a “cash crop”  Direct income from drug sales but also money revenue from subsidized consumer products o By purchasing consumer products and selling those into the local market = converts US Dollars in Columbian Pesos (for example) – can be electronics and cigarettes o money laundering the proceeds of drug sales  Western economies – Canadian and American economy in the 1980’s was drug dependant  The agencies involved in the war on drugs engaged in the effort to end it  Seizing drugs = seizing money which they could keep in their budgets = they’re making money off of it ?  Privately built/run prisons were developed for people who participated in drug offences (minor)  Money laundering (banks and insurance companies for ex.) are being implicated by the process of crime (drugs)  Surplus labour that emerged: created a safety thing to economic groups***  Drugs and the underground drug ring brought some type of revenue (underground)  Money laundering and private institutions: fundamental relationship with legitimate and illegitimate economies o Organized crime represents an imp
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