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CRIM 2650 (97)
Anita Lam (58)


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CRIM 2650
Anita Lam

CRIM2650 LECTURES WINTER 2012January 10 2013Social Construction Labeling Theory IIErving Goffmano Self presentation attempt to present who we are or who we want people to believe we are through our words nonverbal behaviours and actionso Impression management consciousunconscious orchestration of carefully designed presentation of self so as to create certain impression fitting our goals or needs in social interaction Dramaturgical Model of Social Interaction o Theatre as metaphor for social life o Frontstage actively presenting particular self to others o Backstage not actively managing or creating a particular impressionStigma o Refers to process by which reaction of others spoils normal identity o Discrepancy between virtualactual social identity o The situation of an individual whos disqualified or rejected from full social acceptance due to the possession of a deeply discrediting attributeBodily abominations and physical deformities Weaknesses of individual characterRacenationreligionReacting to Stigma o Face to face interactionsmixed contacts o How do normals react to stigmatized peopleDiscrimination stigmatheory o How do stigmatized people react to own stigmaSympathetic the wisepolice Criticism of Goffmans Work o Not example of structural determinism free will and agency vs determinismo Depoliticized and social interaction vs conflict theoryMoral Panic o Describes the fundamentally inappropriate reaction by much of society to relatively minor events and conditions o Perceived threat metaphor borrowed from disaster panicElements of Moral Panic o A condition episode person or group of persons is defined as a threat to social values and interests o Moral barricades are manned by editors bishops politicians and other rightthinking peopleBeckers moral entrepreneurs o Nature of the deviant incident is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion in the mass mediaFolk devils person or group of persons represented as outsiders or deviances and blamed for a societys problems scapegoats and hostile social reaction o The condition then disappears submerges or deteriorates and becomes more visibleVisible media attention social control and law enforcement have intended consequenceso Effect on lawmakersmore punitive laws Deviance amplificationspiral societal reaction increases amount of deviance in society Limitations of Concept of Moral Panic o Question of proportionalityhow to measure and evaluate extent of potentialperceived threat to moral values o Question of media and public Assumes that both are singular unified and homogeneous entitiesDiversity of opinion and conflict of interest among public and media Unpredictable labelling effect and media influence Entertainment media market deviance subculture as exciting Folk devils talk backsocial media Summary o Erving Goffman writes about the ways in which both normal and stigmatized people present themselves in particular ways by engaging in impression management His work examines how symbolic interactions construct social identity o Stanley Cohens concept of moral panic describes the inappropriate societal reaction to particular folk devils This societal reaction is at least partially constructed and informed by media coverage of particular people or incidents Ultimately a moral panic has two potential effects 1 increasing the use of punitive sanctions and 2 deviance amplificationthJanuary 17 2013Conflict Theory and Marxist Criminology Recapo Critical Theoryquestions underlying assumptions and conditions explores limits of knowledge Examines conditions of criminological knowledge Challenges what we know how we know and how its goodo Administrative criminologypolicyoriented research Branch in criminology trying to inform management and control crime and criminals improve administration of justice and the way the state can manage and control Providing better empirical knowledge to government Helps state target weaker powerless groups for better control purposeso Context of Conflict Theory1960s early 1970s vs individual as unit of analysis Eg Bad apply theory Systematic basis for challenging governments creationapplication of law challenged status quoo Common Objectives of Conflict CriminologyDescribes how control of politicaleconomic system affects administration of justiceShows how definitions of crime favour those who control CJSlabeling theorists werent critical about how power and politics play role in how crime gets defined Examine role of conflict in societypower and politicsunequal distribution of power in societyinevitable conflict in society conflict related to competition for powerVs consensus view of crime Beccariasocial contract theory and Durkheimcollective conscience law represents majorityVs interactionistinterpretation of reality based on meanings and symbols we have learned from othersmoral entrepreneurslaws do not reflect values of majority in society Reality is relative depending on how we interpret it Conflict view does not assume crime but assumes there are moral entrepreneurs The starting point isnt morality its power and politics Criminal law is a weapon that is used by wealthy to maintain dominance in class struggle Crime has been defined by affluent as repellant but its not necessarily soMarx Basic Concepts o Economic forcessystem turns workers into machinesdehumanize Cannot understand civilization if we dont understand economic forces at worko Mode of productionreflected in all aspects of social life Interested in historical development when mode changes society will also change The way people develop and produce material goods in society Means of productionmaterial things used to produce goodsservicesSocial relations of productionpeoples ability to secure goods and services relationship between owner and labourer Capitalist classbourgeoisieowners of resourcestoolsfactories used to produce material goods means of production Working classproletariatlaborers workers who dont own any means of production The only thing they own is their own labour Under capitalism class interests were mutually exclusiveexploitation and perpetual class struggleCapitalist classmaximizes profit working class wants money maximize wagesCant have both opposing goals Conflict is inevitable Can only eliminate class conflict if we create a new mode of production with only one class Communism Structural Determinismo Basesuperstructure modelo Base of structuremode of production social relations of production means of productionfactoriesresources etc shapes and determines superstructure o Superstructuresocial institutions Ideology law culture media etc Superstructure legitimates base Marxist Criminology o Crime is function of capitalist mode of production capitalists creates 2 classes haveswhite collar crimestate organizedpolitical have notstreet crimeo Tends to ignore formal theory construction and empirical testing o The value of making a good scientific theory is different for Marxistdont do empirical testing because they dont believe in valuefree objective science dont believe in all ideals of scienceo Historical and descriptive analyses are used to structure the law Dont need to prove statistically that capitalism causes crime the goal is to use analyses to show capitalism creates environment where crime is inevitableo People and criminals are a product of societys economic system can stop crime by ending social and economical conditions that led to crime Instrumental Marxismo Society is based on advanced capitalist economyo The state is organized to serve interests of dominant economic class State is a tool of capitalists Capitalistssmall group of elite wealthy people that can pull strings at the right time to serve their own interestso Largely immune from criminal sanctions White collar crimeless punishedpunished less harshly Eg William Chambliss and vagrancy lawargued statute was designed for 1 express purpose made people giveto unemployed individuals with a sound mindbody Force unemployed to accept employment Brief asidesociolegal studies law on books vs law in actiono Criminal law is instrument of state to maintain existing status quoo Oppression of subordinate classes through violence and coercionThe complicity of mainstream criminology providing theories justifying oppressionDemystificationidentification of destructive intent of capitalistinspired and capitalistfunded criminology o Revolutioncreation of socialist societychange mode of production Need to create new society based on socialist principleso Limitations of Instrumental MarxismIncorrect assumptionsLaw and justice dont always operate in interests in ruling classarent purely instruments of capitalist class because we do have laws controlling corporate crimes and laws and enforced against capitalist classMembers of ruling class dont conspire togetherfree market economy lets capitalism work these 2 classes compete with each other What benefits one member of ruling class doesnt necessarily benefit entire class Some laws also benefit working and lower class Everyone is affected by law including ruling class
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