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CRIM 3654
James Sheptycki

CRIM 3654 – FALL LECTURE NOTES th Friday September 20 , 2013 - The field of crime prevention is as much if not more political and ideological than it is empirical or scientific What is crime prevention? - Genuine crime prevention is difficult to assess, as it involves securing a nonevent. Crime prevention, in part, is activity which results in a non-activity: a ‘non crime’. (Crawford, p 6) What is distinct about crime prevention? - Crime prevention is an umbrella term that includes an enormous number of outcomes, intentions, etc - There is a shift from the welfare state to neo-liberalism, and the significance of the link - The ways in which crime prevention has its origins in public health analogies and is produced out of disenchantment from traditional criminal just approaches, especially rehabilitation - Distinct in that it is involves extending practices for crime policy dealing with crime beyond the state, with emphasis on partnerships and deployment of non-state actors and institutions - Rise of significance of fear of crime, disorder, and significance of the victim - Significance of concept of community safety, with emphasis on local and context-specific partnerships - It is riddled by tensions, paradoxes and significance of the political versus scientific aspects The Welfare State - We are referring to the philosophy of governing’s preferred vision of the welfare of the community, or the nation at large - Emerged out of the shared sense of the failed years that are usually referred to as classical- liberalism or laissez-faire capitalism o The state is not meant to intervene in workings of economic system (classical, liberal view between market and the state) o Problem in 19 century is that it became clear that this entailed many problems o Began a crisis of legitimacy of the capitalist order, so idea of interventionist state became a key idea (unions, religious groups, social works, etc) - General consensus that the market left to its own devices was too variable, too unpredictable, and not humane enough to ensure that everyone could benefit from posterity being generated by capitalist advances - The state is the mechanism best equipped to make sure opportunities are fairly distributed – that is the welfare state Penal-Welfare (Garland, 1985) - Linked the emergence of welfare state to the practices of the criminal justice system - The criminal justice system will reflect and help to maintain and produce the particular kind of state in which we live - Expansion and socialisation of the criminal justice infrastructure – introduction of parole, probation, indeterminite systems, juvenile justice - Expanding penal system shares ideas with the institutions that we associate with welfareism o they fundamentally share a common goal: production and support of good citizens, good workers, good families - penal system and welfare system are linked – they need and support one another, being guided by the same philosophies - based on idea that we can extend the ability to participate to more and more people - these newly enfranchised social citizens are subject to an increasing range of control - penal system emerges as a disciplinary backup behind productive aims of education - this consensus begins to fracture in the 1970s-1980s o we no longer consider countries like Canada to be welfare states, and now neo-liberal states o we no longer see the state as the logical or best provider of our collective welfare o we think of the state inefficient, overly bureaucratic and expensive - same way as welfare state was response to presumed inefficiencies of market, we see neo- liberalism is response to presumed inefficiencies of the state to provide for our well-being - there is a link between neo-liberalism and crime policies Garland’s 12 Indices of Changes - 1) decline of the rehabilitative ideal o In 1970s there was analysis of 231 evaluation studies of prison and prison reform and he came to conclusion that “with few and isolated exceptions, rehabilitative efforts reported so far have had no appreciable effects on recidivism”  An increasing disenchantment with rehabilitation as the founding principle on which all our justice system is exercised  Building sense that rehabilitation is a failure – a dangerously misguided policy - 2) Re-emergence of punitive sanctions and expressive justice: o Increasing distancing from punishment – a radical shift in the understanding of the purposes of punishment itself o It’s preferred for sentences that stress incapacitation, retribution, risk-management o Stresses individual choice, individual agency in offences – offender should face the grunt of circumstances for their offences o Prisons are no longer the punishment, but prisons as sites from which to punish o Introduction of new ways of punishment – re-emergence of death penalty in some states - 3) Salience of the fear of crime o There is a real fear or anxiety amongst people, with messages stating that fear should be necessary for ourselves and loved-ones o They have become a cultural feature – it turns out that telling people not to be afraid doesn’t work o Fear of crime is treated as legitimate in its own right, regardless of its empirical validity, meaning we should base policy not on people’s actual safety levels but their fears  Leaving to a re-imagining of crime o Criminals are presented as dangerous and committed to criminal careers, being no longer seen as a victim of a cruel and uncaring society, but instead society is seen as victim of cruel and capricious character - 4) Return of the victim o Victim is no longer unfortunate citizen at receiving end of criminal trespass, but instead crime is taken up by the state on our behalf, rather than a personal pursuit o E.g. – august 10 (prisoner justice day) – aimed at focusing on and trying to enhance prisoner’s rights. Several years ago at joyceville institution designed a t-shirt that included a logo with an upside down Canadian flag. Upside down is a sign of distress. Federal minister of safety banned the t-shirt in the prison. The explanation the minister gave: the design dishonours tho
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