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Canada (509,225)
York University (35,236)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 3655 (64)
Lecture

CRIM 3655 - SEPTEMBER 24TH LECTURE NOTES

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 3655
Professor
James Sheptycki
Semester
Fall

Description
CRIM 3655 – FALL LECTURE NOTES September 24 , 2013 TH - ESSAY DUE DATE: hand in final essay for this course on DECEMBER 6 (last day of term) - Intro – tell something interesting about what you’re going to say – get reader interested into what you’ll be speaking of - Conclusion – bring reader back to opening paragraph so that the reader realizes they’ve reached the end of a little story Introduction to Canadian Policing What is Policing? - Part of a family of words which includes: politics, policy & polity o Polity means something like the structure of the governance of society o Police is part of the polity o Comes from ancient Greek word polis – which meant something like the governance of great cities o Demos means the people of the polis – a polis that is run along democratic lines is a democratic polis. But you can also have an authoritative state that is not a polis of the demos - Pertains to authoritative intervention into situational exigencies which cannot be predicted in advance o When something happens, someone needs to show up and solve the issue - Policing is the practical policy of social ordering o Helping the society work – making sure that people don’t drive on the wrong side of the street, or park on sidewalk, etc. - Its core feature is the capacity to muster coercive force in the maintenance of a particular or general social order o They have the power to legitimately use coercive force - Policing involves the surveillance of populations and territory in order to intervene against past wrongs and pre-empt future problems - Democratic policing is undertaken on behalf of a citizenry which both understands and endorses the police mission o We understand that a man is not allowed to beat his wife, we endorse police powers being used to do something about that – this is known as democratic policing – this is an ideal - Policing is somehow connected with ability to muster force, and that the force is proportionate with wrong done, and proportionate with whatever needs to be accomplished o We want to minimize the conflict, aggression, disorder Typology of the Policing Field - Low policing is for the general interests , it’s for the good of us all - High policing is for the elites and political purposes - Public police – the general police force - Private security can protect territory - Territorial and population policing Historical Perspective - Early manifestations of policing in Canada drew on both French and English traditions o First police of Paris established for French revolution by Louis 14h - Indigenous people’s traditions of social ordering did not involve the state as such…they were subject to colonial policing o No state or policing,, but they did have their own traditions of social ordering  They would sort you out if you disobeyed o Richard Deane – one of the individuals who epitomized the colonial police tradition implemented on the prairies  One of the biggest issues for Mounties was whisky traders and guns to Indians – very disorderly and bad for Canadians who believe in peace, order and good government. Whisky traders established a trade post. They would trade this whisky for valuable things from Indians. Mounties had a problem – they sorted it out at the trading post and just hung out. Anytime trading was occurring they’d show and just annoyed the traders – Mellowed the situation  They would conduct inquests, set up posts for those who were sick  They were a kind of all-purpose social service  This is considered low policing – for the general social good – to help society stick together in extremely challenging fiscal circumstances  Also conducted high policing by maintaining order between political boarders and those who may have caused trouble (US vs. Indians) - Outside of Quebec, the evolution of Canadian policing drew on the British system. This had 2 aspects: o 1) The ‘Peelian’ tradition  In order to under Robert Peel’s 9 principles of policing it is necessary to understand why English people objected to the establishment of the police  “It is difficult reconcile an effective system of police with the perfect freedom of action and exemption from interference which are the great privileges and blessings of this country” – 1922 British Parliamentary Committee into the Establishment of a Police for the Metropolis  Privileges – comes from the French – private law  The gentry (rich folk) didn’t think they had to pay extra taxes to establish public police because they were fine with where they lived, which they could police effectively in their own interests – had a good system of private policing, and they didn’t want to give up their private law enforcement. Meanwhile, working class didn’t like this French idea  Peel had 9 Principles of Policing  Upper class felt safe, they felt their private property was protected by private means, and lower class just liked having a good time – which is why they rejected this idea of a police force  Gordon Riots (1777) – Militia was called out, the rich gentry got out their household servants and gave them weapons to protect property. They had to call in the army because there was no police force to quell the violence of the mob  Idea of a police force was always voted down because it was not good for English liberty””  The industrial revolution, urbanization moved on quickly – London and Paris were first two cities to reach the size of a million people after Rome. Middle class was called the “dangerous class”. In 1829, Robert Peel managed to force through legislation to establish police commission  Peel argued that this police would be citizens in uniform – highly visible, not going to be secret spies  Success of police depends on public approval, primary job is to prevent bad things from happening by helping people  Legitimacy of police is inversely related to police use of force  We will maintain legitimacy by being politically impartial – everybody is equal in the eyes of the law  The police are the public and the public
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