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ECON 2500

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Introductory Statistics for Economists ECON 2500 – Winter 2011 – Xianghong Li Chapter 2 – Looking at Data – Relationships – Jan 18 Topics of this Chapter - Relationships between two variables. - The two variables are measured on the same individuals (or subjects). E.g. weight and height, GPA and mother’s education level. Introduction: Associations between Two Variables - When there is a casual relationship: o Response variable: measures an outcome of a study. o Explanatory variable: explains or causes changes in the response variables. - However o There may not be distinction of response vs. explanatory between two variables, e.g. city and highway gas mileages for two-seater cars. o Many explanatory-response relationships do not involve direct causation, e.g. high school SAT scores and college grades. 2.1 Scatterplot - A scatterplot shows the relationships between two quantitative variables measured on the same individuals. - There may be no explanatory-response distinction between the two variables. - If there is a distinction, always plot the explanatory variable on the horizontal axis and response variable on the vertical axis. Examining Scatterplot - Overall pattern and striking deviations from that pattern. - Describing the overall pattern by the form, direction a
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