Ch1 illustrated notes.docx

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Department
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Course
EECS 3101
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Summer

Description
CS 302 Ch. 1 The Big Picture 1.1 Computing Systems Computing system: computer hardware, software, and data, which interact to solve problems Computer hardware: the collection of physical elements that make up the machine and its related pieces: boxes, circuit boards, chips, wires, disk drives, keyboards, monitors, printers, and so on. Computer software: the collection of programs that provide the instructions that a computer carries out Layers of a Computing System Information (innermost layer)- reflects the way we represent info. on a computer; info. on a computer is managed using binary digits, 1 and 0; types of info. we manage: numbers, text, images, audio, video Hardware (next layer)- consists of the physical hardware of a computer system; includes devices such as gates and circuits, which control the flow of electricity in fundamental ways; Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory Programming (next layer)- deals with software, the instructions used to accomplish computations and manage data; programs take many forms, performed at many levels, implemented in many languages; goal is to solve problems Operating system (OS)( next layer)- helps manage the computer’s resources; Windows XP, Linux, Mac OS; help us interact with the computer system and manage the way hardware devices, programs, and data interact Applications (outer layer)- focuses on using the computer to solve specific real-world problems; run application programs to take advantage of the computer’s abilities in other areas, such as helping us design a building or play a game; The spectrum of area-specific computer software tools if far-reaching and involves specific sub disciplines of computing, such as information systems, artificial intelligence, and simulation Communications (outmost layer)- computers are connected into networks so they can share information and resources; the Internet Abstraction: a mental model that removes complex details; ex. the levels of a computing system -Miller’s law: a human being can actively manage about 7 (+/- 2 depending on the person) pieces of information in short-term memory at one time -Ex.: driving a car; we don’t need to know how a car works (the engine in detail) to drive one; you only need to know some basics about how to interact with the car (pedals, knobs, steering wheel) -the key to computing; the layers of a computing system embody the idea of abstraction 1.2 The History of Computing A Brief History of Computing Hardware Early History -the Stonehenge, the abacus (16 thB.C), mechanical machines that did addition and subtraction (middle 17 ), th mechanical device to do four whole-number operations (late 17 ), Jacquard’s Loom/ punched card (late 18 ) th -Charles Babbage’s analytical engine: too complex for him to build for the technology of his time; his vision included memory and the input of both numbers and mechanical steps, making use of punched cards -Ada Augusta/ Countess of Lovelace: first programmer; the concept of the loop-a series of instructions to repeat; programming language Ada -mechanical adding machine (late 19 ), electro- magnetic tabulator- read info. from punched card- U.S. census (early 20 )th -Turing machine (1936): an abstract mathematical model -World War II: Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, EDVAC (1950), UNIVAC I (1951)- first computer used to predict outcome of presidential election First Generation (1951-1959) -commercial computers built using vacuum tubes to store info.; a vacuum tube generated a great deal of heat and not very reliable; required very large, specially built rooms with air- conditioning -magnetic drum: primary memory device that rotated under a read/ write head; when the memory cell that was being accessed rotated, data was written to or read from that place -inpute device was a card reader that read the holes punched in an IBM card; output device was a punched card or a line printer -magnetic tape drives: sequential storage devices; the data on the tape much be accessed one after another in a linear fashion -auxiliary storage devices: storage devices external to the computer memory; ex. magnetic tape -peripheral devices: input devices, output devices, auxiliary storage devices Second Generation (1959-1965) -transistor: replaced the vacuum tube as the main component in the hardware; smaller, more reliable, more durable, and cheaper -advent of immediate access memory; magnetic cores: tiny dough- nut shaped devices, capable of storing one bit of information; cores strung together w/ wires to form cells, and cells combined to form a memory unit; device was motionless and accessed electronically -magnetic disk: new auxiliary storage device; faster than the mag- netic tape b/c each data item accessed directly by referring to its location on the disk; organized so each piece of data has own location identifier (an address) Third Generation (1965-1971) -integrated circuits (ICs): solid pieces of silicon that contained the transistors, other components, and their connections; much smaller, nd cheaper, faster, reliable than printed circuit boards (2 gen.) -Moore’s law: the # of circuits that could be placed on a single integrated circuit was doubling each year -IC technology allowed memory boards to be built using transistors -Aux. storage devices still needed because transistor memory was volatile (info. went away when power turned off) -terminal: an input/output device w/ a keyboard and a screen intro- duced; keyboard gave user direct access to computer, screen provided an immediate response Fourth Generation (1971-?) -Large-scale integration -several thousand transistors on a silicon chip -Moore’s law: chip density was doubling every 18 months -personal computer (PC): microcomputers become so cheap that anyone could have one; kids played Pac Man -Apple -IBM PC (1981); Apple Macintosh (1984) -workstations: mid 1980s; larger, more powerful machines generally meant for business; workstations connected by cables, or networked so they could interact w/ each other -machine language: set of instructions each computer was designed to understand -RISC chip: Reduced-Instruction-Set-Computer -Moore’s law: Computers will either double in power at the same price or halve in cost for the same power every 18 months parallel architectures: rely on a set of interconnected central processing units rather and a single primary processing unit -offer several ways to increase the speed of execution; a given step in a program can be separated into multiple pieces, and those
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