Ch1 illustrated notes.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
EECS 3101
All Professors

CS 302 Ch. 1 The Big Picture 1.1 Computing Systems Computing system: computer hardware, software, and data, which interact to solve problems Computer hardware: the collection of physical elements that make up the machine and its related pieces: boxes, circuit boards, chips, wires, disk drives, keyboards, monitors, printers, and so on. Computer software: the collection of programs that provide the instructions that a computer carries out Layers of a Computing System Information (innermost layer)- reflects the way we represent info. on a computer; info. on a computer is managed using binary digits, 1 and 0; types of info. we manage: numbers, text, images, audio, video Hardware (next layer)- consists of the physical hardware of a computer system; includes devices such as gates and circuits, which control the flow of electricity in fundamental ways; Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory Programming (next layer)- deals with software, the instructions used to accomplish computations and manage data; programs take many forms, performed at many levels, implemented in many languages; goal is to solve problems Operating system (OS)( next layer)- helps manage the computer’s resources; Windows XP, Linux, Mac OS; help us interact with the computer system and manage the way hardware devices, programs, and data interact Applications (outer layer)- focuses on using the computer to solve specific real-world problems; run application programs to take advantage of the computer’s abilities in other areas, such as helping us design a building or play a game; The spectrum of area-specific computer software tools if far-reaching and involves specific sub disciplines of computing, such as information systems, artificial intelligence, and simulation Communications (outmost layer)- computers are connected into networks so they can share information and resources; the Internet Abstraction: a mental model that removes complex details; ex. the levels of a computing system -Miller’s law: a human being can actively manage about 7 (+/- 2 depending on the person) pieces of information in short-term memory at one time -Ex.: driving a car; we don’t need to know how a car works (the engine in detail) to drive one; you only need to know some basics about how to interact with the car (pedals, knobs, steering wheel) -the key to computing; the layers of a computing system embody the idea of abstraction 1.2 The History of Computing A Brief History of Computing Hardware Early History -the Stonehenge, the abacus (16 thB.C), mechanical machines that did addition and subtraction (middle 17 ), th mechanical device to do four whole-number operations (late 17 ), Jacquard’s Loom/ punched card (late 18 ) th -Charles Babbage’s analytical engine: too complex for him to build for the technology of his time; his vision included memory and the input of both numbers and mechanical steps, making use of punched cards -Ada Augusta/ Countess of Lovelace: first programmer; the concept of the loop-a series of instructions to repeat; programming language Ada -mechanical adding machine (late 19 ), electro- magnetic tabulator- read info. from punched card- U.S. census (early 20 )th -Turing machine (1936): an abstract mathematical model -World War II: Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, EDVAC (1950), UNIVAC I (1951)- first computer used to predict outcome of presidential election First Generation (1951-1959) -commercial computers built using vacuum tubes to store info.; a vacuum tube generated a great deal of heat and not very reliable; required very large, specially built rooms with air- conditioning -magnetic drum: primary memory device that rotated under a read/ write head; when the memory cell that was being accessed rotated, data was written to or read from that place -inpute device was a card reader that read the holes punched in an IBM card; output device was a punched card or a line printer -magnetic tape drives: sequential storage devices; the data on the tape much be accessed one after another in a linear fashion -auxiliary storage devices: storage devices external to the computer memory; ex. magnetic tape -peripheral devices: input devices, output devices, auxiliary storage devices Second Generation (1959-1965) -transistor: replaced the vacuum tube as the main component in the hardware; smaller, more reliable, more durable, and cheaper -advent of immediate access memory; magnetic cores: tiny dough- nut shaped devices, capable of storing one bit of information; cores strung together w/ wires to form cells, and cells combined to form a memory unit; device was motionless and accessed electronically -magnetic disk: new auxiliary storage device; faster than the mag- netic tape b/c each data item accessed directly by referring to its location on the disk; organized so each piece of data has own location identifier (an address) Third Generation (1965-1971) -integrated circuits (ICs): solid pieces of silicon that contained the transistors, other components, and their connections; much smaller, nd cheaper, faster, reliable than printed circuit boards (2 gen.) -Moore’s law: the # of circuits that could be placed on a single integrated circuit was doubling each year -IC technology allowed memory boards to be built using transistors -Aux. storage devices still needed because transistor memory was volatile (info. went away when power turned off) -terminal: an input/output device w/ a keyboard and a screen intro- duced; keyboard gave user direct access to computer, screen provided an immediate response Fourth Generation (1971-?) -Large-scale integration -several thousand transistors on a silicon chip -Moore’s law: chip density was doubling every 18 months -personal computer (PC): microcomputers become so cheap that anyone could have one; kids played Pac Man -Apple -IBM PC (1981); Apple Macintosh (1984) -workstations: mid 1980s; larger, more powerful machines generally meant for business; workstations connected by cables, or networked so they could interact w/ each other -machine language: set of instructions each computer was designed to understand -RISC chip: Reduced-Instruction-Set-Computer -Moore’s law: Computers will either double in power at the same price or halve in cost for the same power every 18 months parallel architectures: rely on a set of interconnected central processing units rather and a single primary processing unit -offer several ways to increase the speed of execution; a given step in a program can be separated into multiple pieces, and those
More Less

Related notes for EECS 3101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.