EATS1010 - The Dynamic Earth and Space Geodesy Lecture 1

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Department
Earth, Space Science and Engineering
Course
ESSE 1010
Professor
Gary Jarvis
Semester
Fall

Description
The Dynamic Earth and Space Geodesy Earth in Space – Lecture 1 UniverseGalaxySolar systemPlanet The “Nebular Hypothesis” -A cloud of interstellar gas/dust, the “solar nebula”, including material formed in previous generations of stars, is disturbed (for example, by the shock wave from a nearby supernova). 1. Contraction: the cloud starts collapsing under its own gravity. The collapsing, spinning nebula begins to flatten into a rotating pancake. 2. A Protostar: forms in the centre, when the core becomes dense enough; later will become the Sun. 3. Dust grains stick to each other and sweep their paths, forming larger particles (Planetesimals). 4. Orbital paths are cleared 5. The Sun and its planets all spin in the same direction. The Sun Within the core of the Sun: • Temperature exceed 15,000,000 C • Pressure is 340 billion times the atmospheric pressure at Earth’s surface • Conditions are so intense that nuclear fusion takes place creating new elements Nuclear Fusion in the Sun Four hydrogen nuclei get fused into one helium nucleus, accompanied by the emission of neutrinos and release of energy: 1 4 4H He + neutrinos + energy H1 is the nucleus of a hydrogen atom (one proton) He4 is the nucleus of a helium atom (two protons and two neutrons) Conversion of Mass into Energy The nucleus of the resulting helium atom is about 0.7 percent less massive than the four component protons. During the fusion of hydrogen approx 0.7% of the mass of hydrogen is converted into energy E = mc 2 The Solar Wind Fast-moving ions can escape the Sun’s gravitational attraction. Moving outward at hundred of kilometers/sec, these positive and negati
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