EATS1010 - The Dynamic Earth and Space Geodesy Lecture 4

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Earth, Space Science and Engineering
ESSE 1010
Gary Jarvis

Lecture 4 Impact Craters • Dominant geological activity on Earth for the first 600 million years • Knowledge based on: o Explosion craters o Labatory experiments • Earth’s force of gravity accelerates meteoroids towards Earth as they apporach Acceleration and Forces: • If you apply a force to a moving object, you cause a change in its velocity – an acceleration • To double the acceleration rate, you need to double the force • If the mass of the object were doubled, you would need to double the force to produce the same accelerations rate • Isaac Newtown summarized these ideas with the equation: o Force = mass x acceleration o F = m a Force of Gravitational Attraction • Any two objects with masses M and m that are separated by a distance r (between centres) feel a force of mutual gravitational attraction given by the equation • F = G M m / r 2 o Where G is just a number, known as the universal gravitational constant Gravity • We can regoup the terms in this equation as o F = m [GM/r2] not related to properties of the small object o Mass of the small object • The force of gravity is one of Newton’s forces • We can write F as: F = m g, where g = [GM/r ]2 o i.e.mass x acceleration • We say the small mass, m has gravitational acceleration of g Gravitational acceleration • Lets look at the gravitation acceleration acting on a different small object of mass m*: • As in the previo2s example we can regroup the terms in this equation as: • F* = m* [GM/r ] Not related to properties of the small object o Mass of the small object • We can write F* as F* = m*g, where g = [GM/r ] 2 Comparing the two cases 1: F = m g, g = GM/r 2
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