HREQ 1920 Lecture Notes - Peer Pressure, Rodney King, Gender Role

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PART 1 Anatomy and Destiny: Biological
Arguments about Gender Differences 9/18/2012 4:51:00 AM
Introduction
Gender is changeable some experiences are more strongly gendered than
others; gender interacts with forms of categorization such as RACE, CLASS,
SEXUALITY, AND RELIGION influencing individual identities.
Individual experiences of gender are diverse there are two near universal
phenomena that define gender in every culture.
Virtually every single society differentiates people on the basis of
gender
Every known society is based on male domination
„Sex‟ is male and female
Gender refers to cultural definitions of masculinity and femininity the meaning
of maleness and femaleness.
What it means to be a man or woman will vary in four significant ways:
The meanings of gender differences vary from one society to another
the experiences of being masculine or feminine vary within any one
culture over time.
The meaning of masculinity and femininity will change over the life
course as any individual person grows.
The meanings of gender will vary among different groups of women
and men within any particular culture at any particular time.
The important elements of a sociological approach is to explore the differences
among men and women.
- cannot speak of masculinity or femininity as though they were constant.
Gender is an ever changing assemblage of meanings, behaviours,
opportunities and resources.
Expressions of masculinity and femininity are more powerful and persuasive
than others
North Americans try to avoid excessive resemblance to the other gender
“Hegemonic definition” – powerful in our society due to the critics and
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dissenters.
“In an important sense there is only one complete unblushing male …any male
who fails to qualify … view himself as …-unworthy, incomplete and inferior.” –
GOFFMAN,1963: 128
„EMPHASIZED FEMININITY” oriented to accommodating the interests and
desires of men
fragility in mating scenes
compliance with men‟s desire for titillation
ego stroking in office relationship
acceptance of marriage and childcare as a response to labour
market discrimination against women
exaggerates gender difference as a strategy of adaptation to men‟s power‟
stressing empathy and nurturance
„real‟ womanhood is described as fascinating and women are advised that
they can wrap men around their fingers.
„INSTITUTION‟ recurrent patters of interactions connected through shared
agendas and goals
Gendered individuals do not inhabit gender neutral social situations, they
contend; both individual and institution bear the mark of gender
Primary institution to teach „gender‟ is family gendered and gendering
„GENDER VIOLENCE‟ perpetrated by people who believe that some aspect of
their gender legitimates their use of violence against others who appear to
threaten their gendered world.
Statistician “Within group variation consistently exceeds between group
variations”
Pop culture Men aren‟t Mars and women are from Venus, in the end, we are
all from earth.
Chapter 1: Psychological Sex Differences through Sexual Selection
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