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Lecture 3

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HUMA 1160
Stanley Tweyman

Books to refer to- Tweyman Descarte & hums selected topics Descartes- -the concern with Descartes are with the kind of statement people make. - What Descartes favours is 1+2 kind of statement. - verifications trying to prove, true or false -how do you prove prof shirt is white ? someone has to look at it. ( the colour can be changed) This verification is empirical ( see touch taste smell in order to prove true or false. - 1+2 , how will this be verified? - how you learn it is emprircal, you see 1 and 1 which equals two. - Difference between the shirt and 1+1 is that no one can change the 1+1 statement which equals 2. - modality- the confidence of the speaker in the type of connection the sentence posses. - shirt = the subject of tst sentence prediquet = the colour of the shirt ( result) nd - 4 types of modality- 1 modality of possibility ( possibly he is wearing a white shirt) 2 actuality ( as a matter of fact the shirt is white) captures what is the case stronger then what maybe be the case 4 impossibility ( its impossible ie a round square) what cannot be the case rd 3 necessity ( what must be the case) - if its a possibility the subject and the prediquet are separable - with impossibility the subject and the prediquet ever come together - necessity, in the mathematical plain. The subject and the prediquet are inseparable - How would you show that the shirt is white with modality of possibility ? - in order to prove its separable you need to look at the shirt and deny it is white - modality of actuality- the subject and preiquet are separable. - in the case of 1+1=2 the subject and the preiqut are in separable because you cant think 1+1 = 3 or anything else for that matter - mInd has control over what colour it thinks of your shirt - in the case of mathematics the mind has no control of that - temporality – how long can you say the colour of the shirt is white ? until you think of a different colour -temporality – 1+1 =2 how long is that true ? forever - orgin between the connection between the subject and the prediquet ? - in the case of the shirt the orgin of the connection is the manufacture of the shirt - what decartes points out is that this becomes a problem in philosophy ? he said God created 1 + 1 = 2 ( that’s why you can’t deny it ) - with empirical claims you must turn to the external world to get the claim - in the case of 1+1=2  it maybe true that when you learn this your teacher showed you a couple of chalk or pencils, how you learned is through empirical, by seeing. - 1+1 =2 once learned turns out to be independent of all sensory data. It is then independent of the external world -Our senses revel to us what can be the case and what is the case, what it cannot ever revel is what must be the case - Therefore the truth that contain the modality of necessity are therefore called a prior which means they are prior to experience. The truth is not dependent on your senses. - the verifica
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