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• René Descartes. Meditations on First Philosophy (Caravan Books)
• Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan – Parts One and Two (Library of LiberalArts)
• David Hume. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (Caravan Books).
• Course kit (Huma 1160)
4 Inclass tests
1-49 - Done
Replies - 30-52
Preface- 202- 227
Mediations 45-80 - done
Replies 101-104- done 3 Questions that can be asked:
1. What can I know? Epistemology ( area of study) – source of the world Greek study of
2. What ought I do? responsibility, duties, obligations, ethics/ politics
3. What can I hope for? eschatology ( in Greek means last things)
These are the questions we are going to study.
Enlightenment 17 and 18 century in Europe
-General concede to each of the philosophisers they all believe they were going to change the
world revolutionize the world. They though learning of the past was a waste of time therefore
they believed learning begins with them.
- What were people doing before the Enlightenment thinkers
-Thinkers were tied to the churches
What the enlightenment thinkers believed the medieval thinkers were doing-
-That all truth had already been discovered, therefore there was no need to find new knowledge.
- They believed these truths were to be found in bibles.
-They truth therefore were reviled by God
-Pluto and Aristotle
-Difficulties according to medieval thinkers
1. Texts in bible is hard to read
2. Bible Pluto and Aristotle do not agree with each others
What to do
-They need to try to understand the meaning and significant of these texts
- Schools arose of interpretations of these texts
- the attempt to understand the texts is called exegesis.
- So these people study the texts to come to the true meaning of them.
Problems with this
1. Not all exegists greed on the reading, there were different interpretations 2. One side of exegists could not convince the other side.
Before Descartesé after medieval times
- Two areas of learning produced knowledge
- There was room for one side to persuade the other
The two areas are empirical science and mathematics. Learning in these areas was solid
How the Revolutions starts:
Enlightenment thinkers said learning of the past has to be given up. They believed there was
truth but it was mixed in with false. Therefore what needed to be done is abandoned the
learning of the past.
How to start over-
-Learning generally must copy for the sciences.
- Scientific method had to be copied and has to be adopted