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HUMA Lecture #17.docx

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HUMA 1160
Stanley Tweyman

HUMA Lecture #17 March 10 2014 Star Hobbes Leviathan reading. Sections 8-14 for final test Part 11 • Hypothesis: Infinite . Benevolent designer (part 10) • Finitely Perfect . Benevolent (part 11) • Finitely Perfect . Benevolent • Good, God wants to do good • Finitely Perfect  Limited power • B/c of his finite power, some evil will enter the world • The evil comes from the natural causes. Ex/ tornadoes etc. Wind meant for good, but turns evil • Cleanthes’s claim: God did the best job he could do when designing the world • So that world with some evil is the best world possible • And if God tried to do better, he’d do worse • Cleanthes’s conclusion: Therefore, God knows there is evil in the world, but he knows there is nothing he can do about it • Evil must exists for good to exists. • Philo’s position • Improvement in the world is possible • Improvement: More good and less evil • He also believes God can do this • Meaning, this is not the best world possible • How do you prove God could have done better? • Philo: WE judge good and evil by our capacity to survive, the more things that allow us to survive, we judge as good. And things that threaten our survival are evil • What would happen to our chances of survival if God tries to remove evil from the world? • Cleanthes: The chances would decrease • Philo: Changes would increase • Philo believes in 4 natural causes of evil • 1 one done last week, introduction of pain into the world • Pg. 163-169  Natural causes of evil • Pain • Cleanthes: For survival  We need both the capacity of pleasure and capacity of pain • Pleasure gives us something to pursue • Pain tells us to avoid something • If God removes pain, we would not know what to avoid • Philo: We could survive, as well as we currently do, without ever experiencing pain • If you look at human and animal behaviour, we avoid things that bring us pain, we also avoid objects that give us less pleasure • Pleasure alone could teach us what to pursue and what to avoid; pursue things that give more pleasure, avoid things that give less pleasure • If the scale was only made of pleasure, (high pleasure, low pleasure) humans and animals would always be content. • So God could have avoided the introduction of pain, but he didn’t. • The introduction of pain was intended. Second cause of evil in the world: Viz. Laws of Nature; how the world operates • Laws of motion, law of gravity, law of electricity, magnetism • All objects are governed by the law of natural • Cleanthes: It is good that the world is governed by general laws, they our actions predictability • Good that there is regularity, we behave accordingly to it • But, sometimes we will get things like floods, heatwaves, the bad things • But God has only 1 other alternative to this, get rid of the law of nature • But if God were to get rid of the laws of nature, there would be no predictability • This would threaten our survival • Philo: Through the law of motion, we are guaranteed things. If a gun fires a bullet, the bullet will go in that direction. • But in the history of the world, important figures have been assassinated which would make the world a better place. • Philo: It is true, once the bullet is fired it will follow the path where the gun was aimed. It will fly in a path according to the law of motion. IT will kill the leader, which is a bad things • But it is possible for God to intervene, without affecting the laws of motion • In order for the bullet, to leave the gun and reach its victim, the bullet has to follow the path according to the law of motion, the gun itself is the cause of the bullet leaving the gun • Therefore, the gun must have the power to fire the bullet • God has to alter the power of the gun, he doesn’t have to change the law of motion • The change would be the cause level, not the natural level • The gun just has to misfire • Affect causality, not the laws of nature Third cause of evil in the world: Great Frugality in power given to us (All philo) • If you examine any sensible creature, God seems to have made a calculation of the amount of power each species needs in order to survive • Every creature has just enough to ensure its survival • If a creature has been denied speed, the might have been given more intelligence • If any sensible creature loses any power that God gave it, it is doomed • If you lose any of that power, you will be unhappy and survival isn’t possible • Philo: It remains a mystery as to why God only gave us so little • If we had more power and lost it, it wouldn’t be that bad, compared to having so less and losing it all • Pg 166 last paragraph – 167 top paragraph. • Aristotle  Every creature has a place in the world, that place in the world can be considered the order of nature • Within the order of nature, all existence is contained and no creature can go outside its place in nature • EX/ When flight was first begun (when people started to fly), airplanes had no sense of atmospheric level • If the first humans to flew landed, they would say our human bodies alone are not enough to fly • We need the properties of birds if we want to fly just as humans and no other equipment • Philo: We don’t need to break out of our order • Philo: Most of the ill’s that happen to humans, are pretty much our own fault • The cause of this is laziness • Philo: If people were more industrius, more good would come into the world • Pg 166
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