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HUMA 1400
Gordon Anderson

Sept. 19, 2011 Confucianism (The aim is to achieve a “Harmonious Society”) Confucius: - Kong Fuzi/ “Master Kong”/ Kongzi - 551- 479 B.C.E - was a teacher; did not write down ideas; his disciples recorded his teachings/ideas in The Analects Levels of “Characters” 1. Shengren- Sage • highest ideal character (Confucius claimed neither to be a sage nor to have met one) 2. Shanren- Good Man • claimed not to have met a “good man” • term seems to apply to men in gov’t 3. Junzi- Gentleman • ideal moral character • wise, humane, brave, devoted to virtue, respectful, reverent, kind towards ppl, righteous in gov’t (any man COULD be junzi) • 9 concerns: in seeing he’s concerned with clarity, in hearing he’s concerned with _____, in his words he’s concerned with sincerity, 4. Xiaoren- Small Person • petty person; concerned primarily with profit & himself 5. Min- The Common People Precepts/Virtues • Ren - humanity/benevolence; humankind-ness; human-kindness - a person of ren has: reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, kindness - shaped by shu (discovering what others wish or do not wish done to them) and zhong (modern loyalty- for Confucius “the doing of one’s best”) • Zhengming - “rectification of names” - staying in one’s role and fulfilling one’s duties (ex: sons need to be sons, minister a minister); knowing one’s place • Li - ritual (must be carried out with sincerity), decorum, etiquette, good manners • Xiao - “Filial Piety” (shows reverence/respect to parents and elders) • Ti - showing respect for one’s older brother(s) • Tian - heaven • Dao [Tao] - “The Way” - includes the ethical code of an individual - in life not how much, but how good - highest achievement of enlightenment - everything that exists, the origin of everything Mencius: - Meng Zi - 372?- 289 B.C.E - The Mencius (the book of his ideas written by him) Four Beginnings: Four Virtues (we are born with: ) 1. Commiseration  Ren (to feel with solitude/compassion) 2. Shame & Dislike  Yi 3. Modesty, Courtesy  Li 4. Right & Wrong  Zhi Five Human Relationships 1. Ruler  Subject 2. Father  Son 3. Husband  Wife (most important relationship) 4. Elder Brother  Younger Brother 5. Friend  Friend Two Types of Rulers 1. Sage King (wang) 2. Military Lord (ba) • Mandate of Heaven: Tianming  written by Duke Zhou ? Another Confucian: Xunzi (end of the Zhou dynasty) - A high official in the states of Qi & Chu - Teacher of Han Feizi & Li Si (who went on to create Legalists School) - Wrote a series of expository essays found in the Xunzi - Attacked belief in magic, omens and portents of his time - Rational & naturalistic view of the universe & humankind -
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