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HUMA 1850 Lectures - March 4th, 11th, 18th.docx

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HUMA 1850
Loredana Kun

A) Introduction 1. Gospels: provide unique portrayals of Jesus Uncovered through a variety of methods: 1. Literary-historical 2. Redactional 3. Comparative 4. Thematic 5. Social historical 2. Main Interest has been: How did the author and his sources understand and portray the life of Jesus? 3. Main interest will be: What did Jesus really say, do and experience? ii. Paul - provides very little information about him personally: a. born of a woman (Gal 4:4), b. born a Jew (Gal 4:4), c. had brothers (1Cor 9:5), d. ministered among Jews (Rom 15:7) e. had disciples (1Cor 15:5), f. instituted supper, g. possibly betrayed, h. crucified WHAT DID JESUS SAY? Mark 10:11-12 … “whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her; and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery.” Luke 16:18|Matt 5:32|Matt 19:9 Solutions to the Synoptic Problem 1. Farrer-Goulder: Mark wrote first, Matthew used Mark, then Luke used them both Mark Matthew Luke 2. Griesbach: Matthew wrote first, Luke used Matthew, and then Mark combined the two Matthew Luke Mark 3. Four-Source Hypothesis: Mark wrote first; Matthew and Luke independently combined Mark with a collection of Jesus’ sayings (Q), and their own traditions (M and L) CHRISTOLOGY - The theological study of the person and deeds of Jesus - A doctrine or theory based on Jesus and his teachings SOTERIOLOGY - The theological doctrine of salvation as affected by Jesus ESCHATOLOGY - The branches of theology or theological doctrine that is concerned with the world if the world and humankind - The ultimate finality Ex: Death, destiny of humanity, or the last judgement The Gospel of Mark 1. What is a gospel? - “sui generis” - “a passion narrative with an extended introduction” (Hauer-Young, p.251) - Genre: A set of cues committed by writer to tell reader what type of text they have composed and how it should be read - Ancient biography 2. Who is “Mark”? A. Tradition: - the earliest tradition we have about Mark is offered by Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis (ca. 140): “Mark became the interpreter of Peter and wrote down accurately all that he remembered of the things said and done by the Lords, not indeed in the (right) order, because he had not heard the Lord nor had he followed him, but later on, as I said, he had followed Peter, who used to give his teachings as demanded by necessity, not, however, in order to make a composition of the words of the Lord. Thus Mark did nothing wrong in writing down individual pieces just as he remembered them. For only to one thing he gave his attention, to leave out nothing of what he had heard and to make no false statements in them” (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3.39.15) - another important tradition comes from Clement of Alexandria (ca. 150-215): “…when Peter was in Rome preaching the word openly and proclaiming the gospel by the spirit, those present, who were many, entreated Mark, as one who followed him for a long time and remembered what was said, to record what was spoken; but that after he composed the gospel, he shared it with those who wanted it; that, when Peter found out about it, he did not actively discourage or encourage it.” ( - ….. Mark 1 Hebrew Bible The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. As it is written in the prophet Isaiah, “See, I am sending my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare the way; the voice of one crying out in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight,’” John the baptizer appeared in the wilderness, proclaiming a baptism if repentance for the forgiveness if sins. MARK 1 - THE CLEANSING OF THE LEPER (Miracle Story) 39 And he went throughout Galilee, proclaiming the message in their synagogues and casting out demons 40 A leper came to him begging him, and kneeling he said to him, “If you choose. You can make me clean!” 41 Moved with pity, Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, and said to him, “I do choose. Be made clean!” 42 Immediately the leprosy left him, and he was clean. 43 After sternly warning him he sent him away at once 44 saying to him, “see that you say nothing to anyone; but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing what Moses commanded, as a testimony to them.” 45 But he went out and began to proclaim it freely, and to spread the word, so that Jesus could no longer go into town openly, but stayed out in the country; and people came to him from every quarter. THE SIX ARTS 1. Music 2. Painting 3. Sculpture 4. Writing 5. Theater 6. Dance NORTHROP FRYE’S FIVE MODES OF FICTION 1. The LEGENDARY of MYTHIC mode - hero is immortalized as in tales of the gods 2. The ROMANTIC mode - protagonist seen as a superior to humanity & environment 3. The HIGH MIMETIC mode - hero is accepted as a leader with real limitations 4. The LOW MIMETIC mode - the protagonist seen as equal to humanity 5. The IRONIC mode - principal character is inferior to humanity; looked down upon A VEHICLE FOR INTERPRETING JESUS Essential Elements and Typical Guises of the Christ-Figure ELEMENTS/DIMENSION/MOTIFS 1. Mysterious origins (e.g. Star Wars) - an enigmatic hero, e.g. Pale Rider 2. Protagonist attracts followers - they carry on after ‘leader/master’ is gone 3. Commitment to justice/fairness 4. Worker of miracles/wonders 5. Conflicts with authority figures 6. A sacrificial victim or scapegoat 7. Prayer/Communicating with a ‘higher power’ 8. Suffering for the sake of others 9. Shedding of blood 10. Death in a crucifix position 11. Resurrection – often as a metaphor The Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles I. History and Overview A. The Author 1. The Traditional Answer * a man named Luke, a physician and companion of Paul The earliest extant testimony to this tradition is * a document called “The Anti-Marcionite Prologue” dated A.D. 160-180. It read: Luke, a Syrian of Antioch, doctors by profession, was the disciples of the Apostles. At a later date he was the disciple of Paul until the death of the latter. After having served the Lord without fault and never having married, he died, full of the Holy Spirit, at Boeotia, aged eighty-four. As gospels had already been written by Matthew in Judea and by Mark in Italy, Luke, under the impulse of the Holy Spirit, wrote his gospel in the region of Achaia. In the prologue he shows that the other gospels had been written before his, but that it was necessary to present to the faithful converts from paganism an exact account of the economy of salvation, lest they should be impeded by Jewish fables or caused to stray from the truth by the deceits of heretics. 2. Critical Answer The opening lines of the Gospel tells us a little about the writer. He describes himself as a researcher, using more than one written source. The writer also distinguishes himself from the “original eyewitnesses and ministers of the word” (1;2). In a critical examination we note three things: (a) The author of the third Gospel also wrote the Acts of the Apostles. This is clear from the opening lines of both writings, which refer to a Theophilus as the recipient of the work (b) Paul names Luke as one of his companions in the last years of his mission (Phlm 24) B. Luke, as we will continue to call him, appears to be writing for Gentiles - He omits Marcan story On the whole, this gospel appears to be - Representative of the non-Jewish or “Greek” branch of early Christianity - Just as Matthew’s Gospel represent
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