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Information Technology
ITEC 3010
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Systems Analysis and Design I ITEC3010 – Fall 2010 – Luiz Cysneiros Lecture 3 – The Analyst as Project Manager & Approaches to System Development – Sept 28 The Project Team - Like a “surgical team” – each member of the team performs a specialized task critical to the whole - Project team varies over duration of the project (as does project leadership) o During planning team consists of only a few members (e.g. project manager and a couple of analysts) o During analysis phase the team adds systems analysts, business analysts o During design other experts may come in with technical expertise (e.g. database or network design) o During implementation, programmers and quality control people are added Project Management - Project Manager – has primary responsibility for the functioning of the team - Project Management – organizing and directing of other people to achieve a planned result within a predetermined schedule and budget - Good manager: o Knows how to plan, execute the plan, anticipate problems and adjust for variances - Client – person or group who funds the project - Oversight committee – reviews and direct the project - User – the person or group who will use the system Tasks of a Project Manager - Planning and Organization o Identify scope of the project o Develop a plan, with detailed task list and schedule - Directing o Responsible for directing the execution of the project o Responsible for monitoring the project - make sure that milestones (key events in a project) are met o Overall control of the project  Plan and organize project  Define milestones and deliverables  Monitor progress  Allocate resources and determine roles  Define methodologies  Anticipate problems and manage staff Project Initiation - Projects may be initiated as part of the long-term strategic plan (top-down) o Based on mission or objective statement come up with some competitive business strategy- usually involves IT o E.G. Rocky Mountain Outfitters example – to be more competitive wants to improve customer support – so moves towards Internet based re- development of systems - Projects may proceed bottom up o To fill some immediate need that comes up - Projects may also be initiated due to some outside force o E.g. change in tax structure may affect billing system Project Planning Phase - Defining the Problem o Review the business needs and benefits (a brief paragraph) o Identify the expected capabilities of the new system (define the scope of the project) o May involve developing a context diagram to explain the scope of the project Developing a Project Schedule - Identify individual tasks for each activity o Top-down or bottom-up approach - Estimate the size of each task (time and resources) – optimistic, pessimistic and expected times - Determine the sequence for the tasks - Schedule the tasks o Charting methods (Appendix C) o PERT/CPM (Project Evaluation and Review Technique/Critical Path Method) chart shows the relationships based on tasks or activities  Defines tasks that can be done concurrently or not and critical path o Gantt chart shows calendar information for each task as a bar chart  Shows schedules well but not dependencies as well PERT Chart - Tasks represented by rectangles - Tasks on parallel paths can be done concurrently - Critical path – longest path of dependent tasks o No allowable slack time on this path o Other paths can have slack time (time that can slip without affecting the schedule) Gantt Chart - Tasks represented by vertical bars - Vertical tick marks are calendar days and weeks - Shows calendar information in a way that is easy - Bars may be colored or darkened to show completed tasks - Vertical line indicates today’s date Further Preparations - Staffing the Project o Develop a resource plan o Identify and request technical staff o Identify and request specific user staff o Organize the project team into work groups o Conduct preliminary training and team-building - Confirming Project Feasibility o Economic feasibility – cost-benefit analysis o Organizational and cultural feasibility  E.g. low level of computer literacy, fear of employment loss o Technological feasibility  Proposed technological requirements and available expertise o Schedule feasibility  How well can do in fixed time or deadline (e.g. Y2K projects) o Resource feasibility  Availability of team, computer resources, support staff - Economic Feasibility o The analysis to compare costs and benefits to see whether the investment in the development of the system will be more beneficial than than costly - Costs o Development costs : salaries and wages, equipment and installation, software and licenses, consulting fees and payments to third parties, training, facilities, utilities and tools, support staff, travel and miscellaneous o Sources of Ongoing Costs of Operations: connectivity, equipment maintenance, computer operations, programming support, amortization of equipment, training and ongoing assistance (help desk), supplies - Benefits o Tangible benefits - examples  Reducing staff (due to automation)  Maintaining constant staff  Decreasing operating expenses  Reducing error rates (due to automation)  Ensuring quicker processing and turnabout  Capturing lost discounts  Reducing bad accounts or bad credit losses  Reducing inventory or merchandise loss  Collecting accounts receivable more quickly  Capturing income lost due to “stock outs”  Reducing the cost of goods with volume discounts  Reducing paperwork costs - Benefits o Intangible benefits – examples  Increased customer satisfaction  Survival  Safety of a Patient  The need to develop in-house expertise o Note - also can have intangible costs for a project  reduced employee moral  lost productivity  lost customer or sales Conducting the Feasibility Study - Each category of cost is estimated - Salaries and wages are calculated based on staffing requirements - Other costs such as equipment, software licenses, training are also estimated - A summary of development costs and annual operating costs is created - A summary of benefits is created - Net present value (NPV) – present value of benefits and costs, is calculated for e.g. 5 year period - Decision is made to proceed with project or not Chapter 3 – Approaches to System Development - System Development Methodology o Comprehensive guidelines to follow for completing every activity in the system development life cycle, including specific models, tools and techniques o May contain instructions about how to use models, tools and techniques o We will examine a number of different methodologies for system development - Models o Model: A representation of some important aspect of the real world o Models used in system development include representations of inputs, outputs, processes, data, objects, object interactions, locations, networks, and devices etc. o Most models are graphical – diagrams and charts o Models of system components  Flow chart  Data flow diagram (DFD)  Entity-relationship diagram (ERD)  Structure chart  Use case diagram  Class diagram  Sequence diagram - Models to manage the development process o PERT chart o Gantt chart o Organizational hierarchy chart - Tools o Tool: Supportive software that helps create models or other components required in the project o Examples of tools  Project management application  Drawing/graphics application  Word processor/text editor  Computer-aided system engineering (CASE) tools  Integrated development environment (IDE)  Database management application  Reverse-engineering tool  Code generator tool - Techniques o Technique: a collection of guidelines that help the analyst complete a system development activity or task o Examples of techniques  Strategic planning techniques  Project management techniques  User interviewing techniques  Data-modeling techniques  Relational database design techniques  Structured analysis technique  Structured programming technique  Software-testing techniques (e.g. usability testing)  Object-oriented analysis and design techniques Two Approaches to System Development - The basis of virtually all methodologies - Approaches o The structured approach  System development using structured programming, structured analysis, and structured design techniques o Object-oriented approach  An approach to systems development that views an information system as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks Structured Approach - The structured approach is made up of: o 1. Structured programming o 2. Structured design o 3. Structured analysis - Also known as SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Techniques) - Before late 90’s you’d probably learn “structured programming” in your first programming course - “Structured analysis” evolved in the 1980’s (for stage prior to programming) Structured Programming - Structured program o A program or program module that has one beginning and one ending, and each step in the program execution consists of one of the following  Sequence (of program statements)  Decision (where one set of statements or another executes)  Repetition (of a set of statements) o Related to concept of top-down programming  Division of complex problems into a hierarchy of smaller, (more manageable) program modules  Top program “calls” lower-level modules  Lower level modules deal with lower-level detail  Makes programs much easier to write and understand  Module: collection of instructions to accomplish some logical function or task (“modular programming”) – e.g. Procedures/functions in a programming language Structured Design - Struc
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