INTERACTION D ESIGN
1 Goals and Principles SUMMARY
Motivating Interaction Design
What is Interaction Design?
Who is involved?
How does it happen?
The Goals of Interaction Design
Fundamental Design Principles
2 W HAT IS A G OOD D ESIGN ?
Interaction Design is about constructing usable
On-line Reservation Systems
iPods, iPhones and iPads
Control Interfaces for Microwave Ovens
Control Interfaces for Nuclear Reactors
Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs)
What is usable?
Let’s first see what is not usable. 3 W HAT IS A B AD D ESIGN ?
Elevator controls and labels on the bottom row all look the same, so it
is easy to push a label by mistake instead of a control button
People do not make same mistake for the labels and buttons on the
top row. Why not?
Shapes, colors (foreground and background), textures, groupings,
placement, icons, noise signals, lights
Design is a rationale-driven activity: why do we choose this
color and that icon?
If we don’t have justification for decisions we just do random stuff.
Random stuff is NOT design – let alone good design. W HAT IS A BAD D ESIGN ?
Need to push
button first to
And we normally
insert bill first
Design Concern: how to known
minimize users effort to convention
understand how it works. 5
From: www.baddesigns.com W HAT IS A BAD D ESIGN ?
What is wrong with
the Apex remote?
Why is the TiVo
remote so much
Peanut shaped to fit
Logical layout and
Easy to locate
buttons 6 W HAT IS THE PROBLEM ?
technology! W HAT IS THE PROBLEM ?
Good ol’ times!
(*sigh*…)8 ONE PROBLEM : REEPING FEATURISM
9 ANOTHER P ROBLEM: HUMANS VS.
10 11 S O WHAT IS INTERACTION D ESIGN
A systematic way to go about developing
interactive products and interfaces
What is “systematic” and why do we care?
Unsystematic: Rely on your intuition, talent and..
Systematic: follow defined processes and principles,
established by decades of development.
What does it involve:
Understanding of the goals that need to be fulfilled
What design principles to follow
How to learn what you need to build: requirements
How to learn if what you built is right: evaluation2 D EFINITIONS
“Designing interactive products to support the way
people communicate and interact in their
everyday and working lives”
Sharp, Rogers and Preece (2007)
“The design of spaces for human communication
13 O THER NAMES AND RELATED
Related terms: User Interface Design, Software
Design, User-centered Design, Web Design,
Experience Design (UX)
14 C AREERS R ELATED TO INTERACTION
interaction designers - people involved in the design of
all the interactive aspects of a product
usability engineers - people who focus on evaluating
products, using usability methods and principles
web designers - people who develop and create the visual
design of websites, such aslayouts, navigation schemes
information architects - people who come up with ideas
of how to structure information (e.g. corporate web-sites)
user experience designers (UX) - people who do all the
above but who may alsoe.g. carry out field studies to
inform the design of products (how they are used15
appropriated etc) W HAT IS INVOLVED
Identifying needs and establishing requirements:
functional and usability goals, experience goals,
context and user characteristics
Developing alternative designs to meet these
Building interactive prototypes that can be
communicated and assessed
Evaluating what is being built throughout the
process and the user experience it offers
Process is iterative and user-centered. 16 T HE C ENTER OF INTERACTION D ESIGN
The source of requirements
The basic source of evaluation input
Often participate in the design process itself
What do we need to know about the user:
what they can what they cannot do well
Their physical, situation, social environment
Their functional goals:
What are the problems they would like to solve
Their usability goals:
What do they think of as a good vs. a bad interface for achieving
their functional goals.
Quality user experience for them: 17
How they “live” with the product. U SABILITYG OALS / DIMENSIONS
Effectiveness: allows users achieve their
Efficiency: allows quick performance of
Safety: does not put user’s safety (or the
safety of any artefact, work product) at risk.
Utility: users actually use the offered
Learnability: easy to learn.
Memorability: easy to remember how to use U SER EXPERIENCE G OALS
• satisfying • aesthetically pleasing
• enjoyable • supportive of creativity
• pleasurable • rewarding
• exciting • fun
• entertaining • provocative
• helpful • surprising
• motivating • enhancing sociability
• emotionally fulfillin• challenging
• boring • annoying
• frustrating 19 E XAMPLE
What is the difference between
A cell phone and a
A public phone box?
Differences in users and requirements
Functional Requirements (what do we do with them?)
Anticipated user skills
Context: physical, situational
Usability goals: doing more things vs. learning it fast.
How are those differences in users and requirements
reflected to the designs? 20 D ESIGN P RINCIPLES
Generalizable abstractions for thinking about different
aspects of design
The do’s and don’ts of interaction design
What to provide and what not to provide at the interface
Derived from a mix of theory-based knowledge,