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ITEC 3230 (10)


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York University
Information Technology
ITEC 3230
Sotirios Liaskos

INTERACTION D ESIGN 1 Goals and Principles SUMMARY Motivating Interaction Design What is Interaction Design? Who is involved? How does it happen? The Goals of Interaction Design Usability Goals Experience Goals Fundamental Design Principles 2 W HAT IS A G OOD D ESIGN ?  Interaction Design is about constructing usable interactive artefacts: Word Processors Email Clients Cell-phones On-line Reservation Systems iPods, iPhones and iPads Digital Watches Control Interfaces for Microwave Ovens Control Interfaces for Nuclear Reactors Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) …  What is usable? Let’s first see what is not usable. 3 W HAT IS A B AD D ESIGN ? From:  Elevator Panel  Elevator controls and labels on the bottom row all look the same, so it is easy to push a label by mistake instead of a control button  People do not make same mistake for the labels and buttons on the top row. Why not?  Design decisions:  Shapes, colors (foreground and background), textures, groupings, placement, icons, noise signals, lights  Design is a rationale-driven activity: why do we choose this color and that icon?  If we don’t have justification for decisions we just do random stuff. Random stuff is NOT design – let alone good design. W HAT IS A BAD D ESIGN ? Need to push button first to activate reader And we normally insert bill first before making selection Contravenes well  Design Concern: how to known minimize users effort to convention understand how it works. 5 From: W HAT IS A BAD D ESIGN ?  What is wrong with the Apex remote?  Why is the TiVo remote so much better designed?  Peanut shaped to fit in hand  Logical layout and color-coded, distinctive buttons  Easy to locate buttons 6 W HAT IS THE PROBLEM ? 1955 7 technology! W HAT IS THE PROBLEM ? Good ol’ times! (*sigh*…)8 ONE PROBLEM : REEPING FEATURISM 9 ANOTHER P ROBLEM: HUMANS VS. M ACHINES 10 11 S O WHAT IS INTERACTION D ESIGN  A systematic way to go about developing interactive products and interfaces  What is “systematic” and why do we care? Unsystematic: Rely on your intuition, talent and.. good luck! Systematic: follow defined processes and principles, established by decades of development.  What does it involve: Understanding of the goals that need to be fulfilled What design principles to follow How to learn what you need to build: requirements How to learn if what you built is right: evaluation2 D EFINITIONS “Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives” Sharp, Rogers and Preece (2007) “The design of spaces for human communication and interaction” Winograd (1997) 13 O THER NAMES AND RELATED D ISCIPLINES Related terms: User Interface Design, Software Design, User-centered Design, Web Design, Experience Design (UX) 14 C AREERS R ELATED TO INTERACTION D ESIGN  interaction designers - people involved in the design of all the interactive aspects of a product  usability engineers - people who focus on evaluating products, using usability methods and principles  web designers - people who develop and create the visual design of websites, such aslayouts, navigation schemes  information architects - people who come up with ideas of how to structure information (e.g. corporate web-sites)  user experience designers (UX) - people who do all the above but who may alsoe.g. carry out field studies to inform the design of products (how they are used15 appropriated etc) W HAT IS INVOLVED  Identifying needs and establishing requirements: functional and usability goals, experience goals, context and user characteristics  Developing alternative designs to meet these requirements  Building interactive prototypes that can be communicated and assessed  Evaluating what is being built throughout the process and the user experience it offers  Process is iterative and user-centered. 16 T HE C ENTER OF INTERACTION D ESIGN  The User  The source of requirements  The basic source of evaluation input  Often participate in the design process itself  What do we need to know about the user:  Their skills: what they can what they cannot do well  Their context: Their physical, situation, social environment  Their functional goals: What are the problems they would like to solve  Their usability goals: What do they think of as a good vs. a bad interface for achieving their functional goals.  Quality user experience for them: 17 How they “live” with the product. U SABILITYG OALS / DIMENSIONS Effectiveness: allows users achieve their goals. Efficiency: allows quick performance of tasks Safety: does not put user’s safety (or the safety of any artefact, work product) at risk. Utility: users actually use the offered features. Learnability: easy to learn. 18 Memorability: easy to remember how to use U SER EXPERIENCE G OALS • satisfying • aesthetically pleasing • enjoyable • supportive of creativity • pleasurable • rewarding • exciting • fun • entertaining • provocative • helpful • surprising • motivating • enhancing sociability • emotionally fulfillin• challenging • engaging • boring • annoying • frustrating 19 E XAMPLE  What is the difference between  A cell phone and a  A public phone box?  Differences in users and requirements  Functional Requirements (what do we do with them?)  Anticipated user skills  Context: physical, situational  Usability goals: doing more things vs. learning it fast.  How are those differences in users and requirements reflected to the designs? 20 D ESIGN P RINCIPLES  Generalizable abstractions for thinking about different aspects of design  The do’s and don’ts of interaction design  What to provide and what not to provide at the interface  Derived from a mix of theory-based knowledge,
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