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ITEC 3230 (10)
Lecture

RequirementsModeling.pdf

21 Pages
189 Views

Department
Information Technology
Course Code
ITEC 3230
Professor
Sotirios Liaskos

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Description
INTERACTION D ESIGN 1 Gathering Requirements: Modeling Techniques OVERVIEW How we model the information we have acquired. Personas Scenarios Use Cases and Essential Use cases Task Descriptions and Task Hierarchies State Diagrams 2 U SER D ESCRIPTIONS : P ERSONAS  Rich synthesized descriptions of imaginary users but from real data. Allow us communicate about and understand user profiles better  Capture user characteristics  Not real people, but synthesised from real user characteristics Should not be idealised  Bring them to life with a name, characteristics, goals, personal background  Develop multiple personas 3 T ASK D ESCRIPTIONS  Scenarios  an informal narrative story, simple, ‘natural’, personal, not generalizable  As if it happened in the past – no branches (“ifs”)  Use Cases  assume interaction with a system  assume detailed understanding of the interaction  Essential Use Cases  abstract away from the details  does not have the same assumptions as use cases 4 S CENARIO F OR H OLIDAY PLANNER “want to try their hand at sailing this year. There are four members of the family: Sky who is 10 years old, Eamonn who is 15 years old, Claire who is 35, and Will who is 40. While out on a shopping trip they call by at the travel agents in their local town to start exploring the possibilities ... The travel organizer is located in a quiet corner of the agents’ office, where there are comfortable seats and play things for young children. They all gather around the organizer and enter their initial set of requirements—a sailing holiday for four novices. The stand-alone console is designed so that all members of the family can interact easily and comfortably with it. The system’s initial suggestion is that they should consider a flotilla holiday, where several novice crews go sailing together and provide mutual support for first-time sailors…” 5 U SE CASE FOR H OLIDAY P LANNER Use Case Name Get Visa Requirements Participating Traveler Actors Flow of Events 1. The SYSTEM displays options for investigating visa and vaccination requirements. 2. The user chooses the option to find out about visa requirements. 3. The SYSTEM prompts user for the name of the destination country. 4. The user enters the country’s name. 5. The SYSTEM checks that the country is valid. 6. The SYSTEM prompts the user for her nationality. 7. The user enters her nationality. 8. The SYSTEM checks the visa requirements of the entered country for a passport holder of her nationality. 9. The SYSTEM displays the visa requirements. 10. The SYSTEM displays the option to print out the visa requirements. 11. The user chooses to print the requirements. Precondition System displays main screen Postcondition - 6 Quality System should respond within 1 second. Printing should be complete within 10 seconds. A LTERNATIVE C OURSES FOR H OLIDAY PLANNER Some alternative courses: 6. If the country name is invalid: 6.1 The system displays an error message. 6.2 The system returns to step 3. 8. If the nationality is invalid: 8.1 The system displays an error message. 8.2 The system returns to step 6. 9. If no information about visa requirements is found: 9.1 The system displays a suitable message. 7 9.2 The system returns to step 1. E XAMPLE USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR HOLIDAY PLANNER Identify potential Holiday options Update holiday details Retrieve visa requirements Retrieve vaccination requirements Holidaymaker Travel agent 8 E XAMPLE ESSENTIAL USE CASE FOR HOLIDAY PLANNER Essential use cases a. don’t specify what the involved parties exactly do. b. don’t show the details of the interface that is used (e.g. “provide information” instead of “display information on screen”,  USER INTENTION SYSTEM RESPONSIBILITY find visa requirements request destination and nationality supply required information obtain appropriate visa info obtain copy of visa info offer info in different formats choose suitable format provide info in chosen 9 format T ASK ANALYSIS  Task descriptions are often used to envision new systems or devices  Task analysis is used mainly to investigate an existing situation  It is important to focus on: What are people trying to achieve? Why are they trying to achieve it? How are they going about it?  Many techniques, the most popular is Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) 10 H IERARCHICAL TASK ANALYSIS  Involves breaking a task down into subtasks, then sub-sub-tasks and so on. These are grouped as plans which specify how the tasks might be performed in practice  HTA focuses on physical and observable actions (i.e. not cognitive), and includes looking at actions not related to software or an interaction device  Start with a user goal which is examined and the main tasks for achieving it are identified  Tasks are sub-divided into sub-tasks 11 E XAMPLE H IERARCHICAL T ASK A NALYSIS 0. In order to borrow a book from the library 1. go to the library 2. find the required book 2.1 access library catalogue 2.2 access the search screen 2.3 enter search criteria 2.4 identify required book 2.5 note location 3. go to correct shelf and retrieve book 4. take book to checkout counter plan 0: do
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