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Lecture 20

KINE 2049 Lecture 20: Midterm 1 notes

9 Pages

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

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TOPIC 1 Characteristics of research: 1. Carefully designed 2. Research is objective & logical w/o bias 3. Expertise in the field of research is required (know the techniques) 4. Development of generalizations (ability to predict future occurrences) 5. Based in empirical evidence (observe, measure and experiment) 6. Gather new data/use existing for new purposes (primary sources are used) 7. Requires accurate observation & description (quantitative measuring) 8. Careful recording (result published for others to examine) 9. Patient activity and analysis (very often failures) 10. Replication (confirm or raise questions) 11. 3 stages of truth (requires courage): Ridicule, opposition (most ppl will oppoe at first) & self-evident (few early supporters grow to enter the mainstream of knowledge) 12. Reductive (present things in the simplest way) Level of knowledge (descending order) 1. description 2. Prediction 3. Control 4. explanation Pyramid of Evidence: (1 being most effective and empirical) 1. RCT: Randomized & Controlled 2. COntrolled but not randomized 3. Cohort/case control 4. Multiple times series 5. Expert opinion Ways of knowing: 1. Custom & tradition [1-4 years] 2. Authority [5+ yrs] = teachers, school, religious leaders etc. 3. Personal experience = supersition 4. Reasoning: Inductive (small -> large) & deductive (general -> specific) 5. Scientific inquiry: problem inquiry, hypothesis, data collection, analysis, acception or rejection of hypothesis, conclusion AAR [Absolute Risk Reduction]: CER - EER RRR [Relative Risk Reduction]: ER - EER) / CER Baseline risk is looked at in regards to RRR: if the initial baseline is low then the intervention is not going to be as effective NNT [Number needed to treat]: 1/AAR (inverse of AAR) CER = control group event rate EER = experimental group event rate Relative Risk & Relative risk reduction RR (relative risk) = Probability of event when exposed / Probability of event when non-exposed Ability to compare the risks of exposure vs. non-exposure Shows how many times an outcome is developed in an exposed group relative to a non-exposed group RR = 1 = no risk if outcome (no significant difference) RR > 1 = increased risk of outcome RR < 1 decreased risk of outcome Tenure: protects academic freedom, unpopular research is protected/support by faculty for faculty members Research = finding solutions to problems in a logical, orderly & systematic manner Professional responsibilities = must be current research/solutions to ongoing problems and we should all be consumers of research The research process define/select a problem Develop a hypothesis Review the literature Determine the measures Describe the subjects Design the research study identity / develop the measuring Conduct the study Analyze the data Conclusions Research report The nature and purpose of research: research is an organised attempt to obtain knowledge(facts/truth) Develop new knowledge when possible Modify present information/knowledge when appropriate When necessary, correct old knowledge Gold standard = RCT: allows us to evaluate all research designs. Understand the limitations of other designs Scientific axioms: ACCID-EPS Amorality: knowledge & morality = independent Caution: new knowledge is accepted cautiously Consistency: the worlds if orderly & remains so for long periods of time Determinism: the cause of events can be determined & take place for a reason Empiricism: knowledge should be based on observation Intelligibility: humans have the ability to understand the world Parsimony: simple explanations are preferable Skepticism: knowledge remains open to criticism or challenge Research Terms 1. Hypothesis: based on facts from prior research/theory. Simple, clear & testable 2. Directional (research) hypothesis & Null hypothesis: only null can be tested statistically 3. Facts & theory Types of Research Basic & applied: pure research for fun vs. research conducted to solve immediate problems Qualitative & quantitative: observations to determine reasons for behaviour, answers why questions vs. answer how many, what size and numbers involved. Cant capture the role of the human experience Descriptive & experimental: gather info about naturally occurring events. Uses surveys, observation, correlation vs. manipulate variables to understand the cause and effect relationships Longitudinal & cross-sectional: same subjects for studied repeatedly for long periods of time (correlational) vs. subjects are measured at the same time Human & animal: humans used as subjects vs. animals used as subjects Animal research Observational research: gain knowledge by observing
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