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Lecture 20

KINE 2049 Lecture 20: Midterm 1 notes

by OneClass2375507 , Fall 2017
9 Pages
98 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2049
Professor
Merv Mosher
Lecture
20

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TOPIC 1
Characteristics of research:
1. Carefully designed
2. Research is objective & logical w/o bias
3. Expertise in the field of research is required (know the techniques)
4. Development of generalizations (ability to predict future occurrences)
5. Based in empirical evidence (observe, measure and experiment)
6. Gather new data/use existing for new purposes (primary sources are used)
7. Requires accurate observation & description (quantitative measuring)
8. Careful recording (result published for others to examine)
9. Patient activity and analysis (very often failures)
10. Replication (confirm or raise questions)
11. 3 stages of truth (requires courage): Ridicule, opposition (most ppl will oppoe at first)
& self-evident (few early supporters grow to enter the mainstream of knowledge)
12. Reductive (present things in the simplest way)
Level of knowledge (descending order)
1. description
2. Prediction
3. Control
4. explanation
Pyramid of Evidence:
(1
being
most
effective
and
empirical)
1. RCT: Randomized & Controlled
2. COntrolled but not randomized
3. Cohort/case control
4. Multiple times series
5. Expert opinion
Ways of knowing:
1. Custom & tradition [1-4 years]
2. Authority [5+ yrs] = teachers, school, religious leaders etc.
3. Personal experience = supersition
4. Reasoning: Inductive (small -> large) & deductive (general -> specific)
5. Scientific inquiry: problem inquiry, hypothesis, data collection, analysis, acception or
rejection of hypothesis, conclusion
AAR [Absolute Risk Reduction]: CER - EER
RRR [Relative Risk Reduction]: (CER - EER) / CER
Baseline risk is looked at in regards to RRR: if the initial baseline is low then the
intervention is not going to be as effective
NNT [Number needed to treat]: 1/AAR (inverse of AAR)
CER = control group event rate
EER = experimental group event rate
Relative Risk & Relative risk reduction
RR (relative risk)  = Probability of event when exposed / Probability of event when
non-exposed
● Ability to compare the risks of exposure vs. non-exposure
● Shows how many times an outcome is developed in an exposed group relative to a
non-exposed group
● RR = 1 = no risk if outcome (no significant difference)
● RR > 1 = increased risk of outcome
● RR < 1 decreased risk of outcome
Tenure: protects academic freedom, unpopular research is protected/support by
faculty for faculty members
Research = finding solutions to problems in a logical, orderly & systematic manner
Professional responsibilities = must be current research/solutions to ongoing
problems and we should all be consumers of research
The research process
● define/select a problem
● Develop a hypothesis
● Review the literature
● Determine the measures
● Describe the subjects
● Design the research study
● identity / develop the measuring
● Conduct the study
● Analyze the data
Conclusions
● Research report
The nature and purpose of research:
● research is an organised attempt to obtain “knowledge”(facts/truth)
● Develop new knowledge when possible
● Modify present information/knowledge when appropriate
● When necessary, correct old knowledge
Gold standard = RCT: allows us to evaluate all research designs. Understand the
limitations of other designs
Scientific axioms: ACCID-EPS
● Amorality: knowledge & morality = independent
● Caution: new knowledge is accepted cautiously
● Consistency: the worlds if orderly & remains so for long periods of time
● Determinism: the cause of events can be determined &  take place for a reason
● Empiricism: knowledge should be based on observation
● Intelligibility: humans have the ability to understand the world
● Parsimony: simple explanations are preferable
● Skepticism: knowledge remains open to criticism or challenge
Research Terms
1. Hypothesis: based on facts from prior research/theory. Simple, clear & testable
2. Directional (research) hypothesis & Null hypothesis: only null can be tested
statistically
3. Facts & theory
Types of Research
Basic
&
applied
: pure research for “fun” vs. research conducted to solve immediate
problems
Qualitative
&
quantitative
: observations to determine reasons for behaviour, answers
“why” questions vs. answer how many, what size and numbers involved. Can’t
capture the role of the human experience
Descriptive
&
experimental
:

gather info about naturally occurring events. Uses
surveys, observation, correlation vs. manipulate variables to understand the cause
and effect relationships
● Longitudinal
&
cross-sectional:

same subjects for studied repeatedly for long periods
of time (correlational) vs. subjects are measured at the same time
● Human
&
animal:

humans used as subjects vs. animals used as subjects
Animal research
● Observational  research: gain knowledge by observing
● Experimental research: animal use at early stages of testing before there is evidence
of treatment being safe for human trial
Common pets used:
Dogs: artificial insemination, hemophilia
Chickens: immune systems
Cattle: immune system
Sheep: cloning; prions = brain disease
Monkey: Ph positive/negative
Animal protectionists: believe that animals should be treated with the same standards and
rights as humans
PROS:
Source of basic research
High genetic similarity b.w some animals & humans
High degree of control in the lab which eliminated alternate hypotheses
Control of the dropout rate
Difficult to obtain a large sample size in humans
Legal and ethical limitations of treatments to humans
Source of many medical treatments
Short life span & quick reproduction rate (in rats and fruit flies)
CONS:
The genetic similarity b.w animals & humans is not exact
Humans & monkeys = 96% similar
Humans & flies + 60%
The mouse genome is 14% shorter than humans. Human & mice = more than 90% similar
Difficult to define threshold of ethical & unethical treatment
Many lab animals are nocturnal (active at night) humans are not

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Description
TOPIC 1 Characteristics of research: 1. Carefully designed 2. Research is objective & logical w/o bias 3. Expertise in the field of research is required (know the techniques) 4. Development of generalizations (ability to predict future occurrences) 5. Based in empirical evidence (observe, measure and experiment) 6. Gather new data/use existing for new purposes (primary sources are used) 7. Requires accurate observation & description (quantitative measuring) 8. Careful recording (result published for others to examine) 9. Patient activity and analysis (very often failures) 10. Replication (confirm or raise questions) 11. 3 stages of truth (requires courage): Ridicule, opposition (most ppl will oppoe at first) & self-evident (few early supporters grow to enter the mainstream of knowledge) 12. Reductive (present things in the simplest way) Level of knowledge (descending order) 1. description 2. Prediction 3. Control 4. explanation Pyramid of Evidence: (1 being most effective and empirical) 1. RCT: Randomized & Controlled 2. COntrolled but not randomized 3. Cohort/case control 4. Multiple times series 5. Expert opinion Ways of knowing: 1. Custom & tradition [1-4 years] 2. Authority [5+ yrs] = teachers, school, religious leaders etc. 3. Personal experience = supersition 4. Reasoning: Inductive (small -> large) & deductive (general -> specific) 5. Scientific inquiry: problem inquiry, hypothesis, data collection, analysis, acception or rejection of hypothesis, conclusion AAR [Absolute Risk Reduction]: CER - EER RRR [Relative Risk Reduction]: ER - EER) / CER Baseline risk is looked at in regards to RRR: if the initial baseline is low then the intervention is not going to be as effective NNT [Number needed to treat]: 1/AAR (inverse of AAR) CER = control group event rate EER = experimental group event rate Relative Risk & Relative risk reduction RR (relative risk) = Probability of event when exposed / Probability of event when non-exposed Ability to compare the risks of exposure vs. non-exposure Shows how many times an outcome is developed in an exposed group relative to a non-exposed group RR = 1 = no risk if outcome (no significant difference) RR > 1 = increased risk of outcome RR < 1 decreased risk of outcome Tenure: protects academic freedom, unpopular research is protected/support by faculty for faculty members Research = finding solutions to problems in a logical, orderly & systematic manner Professional responsibilities = must be current research/solutions to ongoing problems and we should all be consumers of research The research process define/select a problem Develop a hypothesis Review the literature Determine the measures Describe the subjects Design the research study identity / develop the measuring Conduct the study Analyze the data Conclusions Research report The nature and purpose of research: research is an organised attempt to obtain knowledge(facts/truth) Develop new knowledge when possible Modify present information/knowledge when appropriate When necessary, correct old knowledge Gold standard = RCT: allows us to evaluate all research designs. Understand the limitations of other designs Scientific axioms: ACCID-EPS Amorality: knowledge & morality = independent Caution: new knowledge is accepted cautiously Consistency: the worlds if orderly & remains so for long periods of time Determinism: the cause of events can be determined & take place for a reason Empiricism: knowledge should be based on observation Intelligibility: humans have the ability to understand the world Parsimony: simple explanations are preferable Skepticism: knowledge remains open to criticism or challenge Research Terms 1. Hypothesis: based on facts from prior research/theory. Simple, clear & testable 2. Directional (research) hypothesis & Null hypothesis: only null can be tested statistically 3. Facts & theory Types of Research Basic & applied: pure research for fun vs. research conducted to solve immediate problems Qualitative & quantitative: observations to determine reasons for behaviour, answers why questions vs. answer how many, what size and numbers involved. Cant capture the role of the human experience Descriptive & experimental: gather info about naturally occurring events. Uses surveys, observation, correlation vs. manipulate variables to understand the cause and effect relationships Longitudinal & cross-sectional: same subjects for studied repeatedly for long periods of time (correlational) vs. subjects are measured at the same time Human & animal: humans used as subjects vs. animals used as subjects Animal research Observational research: gain knowledge by observing
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