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KINE 4010 Lecture Notes - Creatine Supplements, Dietary Supplement, Anaerobic Glycolysis

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 4010
David Hood

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Sept 15, 2010
Cardiovascular resp. system
1. Circulation
-Transportation of energy and oxygen to muscle tissue
-Transportation of waste products
2. Respiration
-Intake of air into body
-Diffusion and carbon dioxide at lungs and muscle tissue
-Removal of carbon dioxide from body
Metabolic system
-Production of energy
-Balance of energy intake and output for body composition and weight control
Neuromuscular –skeletal system
-Locomotion (exercise)
-Movement brought about by muscle contraction (under neural stimulation acting
for bony levers of skeletal system)
Inactive Canadians
-#1 in New Brunswick - 63%
-#2 in PEI – 62%
-#3 in Manitoba (Western province)– 61%
-Most active in BC which is 47% (lowest percentage of inactive people)
Total cholesterol – HDL (good)+ LDL (bad)+ VLDL (bad)
Energy metabolism during Exercise
-ATP => Adenine + Ribose (sugar)+ P~P~P (phosphate group attached to Ribose
which is a high energy bond)
-ADP => Adenine + Ribose + P~P

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-AMP => Adenine + Ribose + P
-Adenosine = Ribose + Adenine. Vasal dilator
-one P = 3 oxygen, one OH
-Pi = inorganic phosphate when its not attached to ATP. When it becomes
attached to ATP, becomes ‘P’
-ATP is broken down by Myosin ATPase enzyme to ADP +Pi and uses that
energy to catalyze muscles
-ADP + Pi is then converted back to ATP by Energy Metabolism which is also
called catabolism (break of down of large molecules such as fatty acids, glucose
and sugars to help ATP levels constant to keep our muscles contracting)
Energy Metabolism (time depended)
1. ATP-PC (Phosphate creatine)
2. Anaerobic Glycolysis – without oxygen
3. Aerobic (Mitochondria)
What happens during first seconds of exercise?
-ATP demand for high and low intensity exercise. The demand for fuel is
immediate which is based on either exercise is high intense or low intense. The
higher the intensity, the higher the demand is
-The job of metabolism and the 3 systems is to cover the demand with supply to
complete the job
-We supply the ATP by using the 3 systems so that demand is met
-What is meant by time dependent?
othe first system is simple which is one reaction. Its easier to turn it on and
othe other 2 systems such as Glycolysis (13 reactions )and Aaerobic are
increasingly complex. The bigger the pathway, the more sluggish it
becomes to get it moving
othe aerobic system takes longer than glycolysis since it has more reactions
-ATP is broken down to ADPf (free) and Pi by Myosin ATPase
-Then, Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) immediately grabs ADPf as its building up
and combines with PCr (Phosphocreatine) and reforms ATP and Creatine

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-ATP is only sufficient for few contractions
What controls Myosin ATPase activity?
Sept 20/22,10
Creatine supplements (e.g. 5g, taken 4 times/day x 3-5 days)
- because creatine accumulates in muscle, dietary sources of creatine are muscle
- it also accumulates in chicken or cow muscle
- in order to get dietary supplement, should consume meat
1. represent a large dose, equivalent to 4 kg steak/day
2. is a large osmotic load when it enters cells
- as creatine is taken, the concentration of creatine in blood goes up
- createine is then taken up by muscle
- in the muscle, is a transporter protein, that facilitates the transport of creatine in
- when molecules in the cell accumulate, then compensation (osmosis) starts to take
- as water moves in, muscle cells become bigger
- if stop taking creatine, then it will reverse
- water retention - adema
3. have no know side-effects yet
4. can increase PCr by 5-15% (variable, depending on the normal diet of the consumer)
- the reason to take more creatine is to make more phosphocreatine
- the changes in PCr are small
-the normal source of creatine is meat
- the magnitude of taking dietary supplements is less
- if meat is not taken, then dietary supplements will have larger effect than taking them
with meat
5. may have muscle “anabolic” effects; evidence for this is not yet strong
6. creatine is an amino acide analogue (combination of 2 amino acids and features of an
amino acids), not a protein
- Glut4 is responsible for transporting glucose in the cell. Glut4 is activated by insulin
which stimulates the activity of glut 4 and facilitates the transporting glucose
- AA transporter is fooled since creatine looks a lot like amino acid with amino acid
analogue, so then it gets transported
- AA transporter and glut4 transporter are stimulated by insulin. If glucose and creatine
are taken together, then insulin is facilitated as well
7. PCr utilization and restoration improves with creatine ingestion
- ingest with glucose
- with creatine, its 110% and with creatine placebo, its 100%
8. performance improves in some studies
- 30 sec. maximal cycling – work improved 4%
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