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03 Connective Tissue.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

May 7, 2012 Connective Tissue Types of Connective Tissue  Connective Tissue Proper ( Loose and Dense)  Cartilage  Bone -(see other chapter)  Blood-(see other chapter) Development of Connective Tissue Mesenchyme is embryological connective tissue that is the first type of connective tissue that forms the other four. Endothelium and Mesothelium are also derived from this same source. Functions of Connective Tissue Physical protection: The bones of the cranium, sternum, and thoracic cage protect delicate organs, such as the brain, heart, and lungs; fat packed around the kidneys (perirenal fat) Support and Structural framework: Bones provide the framework for the adult body and support the soft tissues; cartilage supports such body structures as the trachea, bronchi, ears, and nose; connective tissue sheets form capsules to support body organs such as the spleen and kidneys. Transport: Blood carries nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, and blood cells between different regions of the body. Binding of structures: Ligaments bind bone to bone; tendons bind muscle to bone; dense irregular connective tissue binds skin to underlying muscle and bone. Storage: Fat is the energy reserve in the body; bone is a large reservoir for calcium and phosphorus. Immune protection: Many connective tissue types contain white blood cells (leukocytes), which protect the body against disease and mount an immune response when the body is exposed to something foreign. A derivative of one type of leukocyte, called a macrophage, phagocytizes (“eats up”) foreign materials. Additionally, the extracellular matrix is a viscous material that interferes with the movement and spread of disease-causing organisms. Connective Tissue Proper LOOSE: Areolar, Adipose, Reticular This tissue occupies the spaces between and around organs. Loose connective tissues support the overlying epithelia and provide cushioning around organs, support and surround blood vessels and nerves, store lipids, and provide a medium for the diffusion of materials. Areolar:  highly variable in appearance and the least specialized connective tissue in the body.  loosely organized array of collagen and elastic fibers and an abundant distribution of blood vessels.  contains all of the cell types of connective tissue proper; thought to be prototype for L.C.T.  Areolar connective tissue is found nearly everywhere in the body.  It surrounds nerves, blood vessels, and individual muscle cells. Cells in Areolar Tissue  Fibroblasts are cells in the Areola tissue that produce protein fibres and ground substance. 3 types of fibres produced are COLLAGEN, ELASIC, and RETICULAR. Ground Substance: Fibroblast is responsible for producing a colourless, viscous (rubbery) solution termed Extra Cellular Matrix. 1. Collagen (White) Fibres:  fibres of collagen protein;  strong, flexible and resistant to stretch 2. Elastic (Yellow) Fibres:  fibres of elastin protein;  allows for stretch and recoil. 3. Reticular Fibres:  Made up of collagen protein (different than collagen white fibres).  Tough but flexible.  Form branching/lattice like network in organs like Spleen and Lymph nodes.  Defense Cell:  Many different type of cells, each responsible in different ways for breaking down pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungus) that enter into the body.  Second line of defence after epithelial cells.  Adipose Cell:  cells that contain mainly lipids  energy storage  pad and protect the body  source of regulatory hormones such as leptin Other Types of Connective Tissue Proper Loose Adipose Tissue (diagram above):  Connective tissue in which the primary type of cells are fat cells  Found in female breast, around some organs for protection and insulation (kidney). Reticular Tissue:  Connective tissue with predominantly reticular type fibres.  Found in hollow organs like the liver, spleen and lymph nodes  Organs that act like a sponge to trap fluids Connective Tissue Proper DENSE (collagenous tissue)  Composed primarily of protein fibres and has proportionately less ground substance than does loose connective tissue.  Collagen fibres are the dominant fibre type.  There are three categories of dense connective tissue: (1) dense regular connective tissue, (2) dense irregular connective tissue, and (3) elastic Regular Connective Tissue  Collagen fibres running parallel to each other and densely packed together  Found in ligaments (bone to bone) and tendons (muscle to bone)  Usually poor blood supply making them slow to heal if damaged Irregular Connective Tissue  individual bundles of collagen fibres extend in all directions in a scattered meshwork in clumps, rather than parallel  provides support and resistance to stress in multiple directions. i.e. deep portion of the dermis, which lends strength to the skin and permits it to withstand applied forces from any direction.  Dense irregular connective tissue also forms a supporting layer around cartilage (perichondrium) and around bone (periosteum), except at joints.  Forms a thick, fibrous capsule that supports and houses internal organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Elastic Connective Tissue  Branching elastic fibres and packed collagen fibres  More fibroblasts than loose connective tissue  The elastic fibres provide resilience and the ability to deform and then return to normal shape.  Found in elastic ligaments like the Liga
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