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Lecture 13

KINE 2031 Lecture 13: M. Dec 2.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
All Professors

Lecture - December 2, 2013 Review session - Wednesday Friday no class, if everything else goes well Leg muscles •Systematic way to make it easy to learn •12 muscles, 4 groups of 3 • Plantar vs. dorsal o Plantar more powerful o 2 groups in plantar (posterior) and 1 dorsal (anterior) o Plantar - one deep and one superior •Diagram which shows the cluster of the three Superficial plantar flexors •They make up the Achilles tendon o Gastrocnemius tendon (superficial) o Soleus tendon o Plantaris tendon (medial side) •They all insert in the calcaneal (achilles) •Great force arm •Power movement Deep Plantar flexor •Tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus •Catergories o Originates back of the leg (tibia and fibula) o Pass behind the medial malleolus o Run down to the plantar surfaces of the foot •The foot, run in two primary areas of the foot o Arches (top or bottom) o Toes •Tibialis posterior - goes to the arch of the foot - (produces plantar flexion) •Flexor Digitorum Longus - back of the leg and goes to the digits (toes) - (plantar flexion) •Flexor Hallucis longus - great toe Dorsi Flexors •Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, •They mirror the deep plantar flexors •Originate the anterior surface of the tibia, front of the leg and pass over the ankle •Tibialis anterior - •Extensor digitorum longus - extends the toes •Extensor hallucis longus - extends the great toe •Ligament band (extensor retinaculum) same as the wrist to keep the tendons down o As the muscles shorten, it pulls up on the tendons which produces the dorsal flexion Foot evertors: peroneals •Evertors originate on lateral side of the leg (fibula) o they pass down the lateral malleolus, and evert, pass behind the lateral malleolus •Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, peroneus tertius o Two of the them will pass behind - to contribute to the power movement (longus and brevis) • Plantar flexion • They are stronger and bigger muscles o Tertius - contribute to dorsal flexion • Passes on front •Brevis is shorter - originates lower and doesn't go far •Longus - originates higher, longer o To the first metatarsal o Both (brevis and longus) will pull the same direction to cause eversion •Tertius - originates at the fibula o Front of the lateral malleolus o Inserts base of the fifth metatarsal o Dorsal flexion o Passes from of the ankle o Everts the foot •All three evert! Intrinsic muscles: foot •Same as the hand •Plantar aponeurosis o Long connective tissue o If it tears, It would hurt if you walk/run o If you have a large arch, you need an arch in your shoe so it doesn't tear o This muscle helps maintain the arch of the foot •Most of these intrinsic muscles will help produce stability in your foot, especially when walking bare foot •All you need to know about the foot that are bunch of muscles in the foot called the intrinsic muscles Biarticular muscles action •Demonstration by a student of what happens when flexing and extending muscles and about active and passive insufficiency •Leg is extended o Active insufficiency •Extend your hip as much as possible and flex your knee o Muscle is getting shorter o Producing less force o Short as possible at the hip and knee •These muscles involved all the time in some tension (quadriceps and hamstrings) •When you have active sufficiency o You are limited in the range of movement o In terms of the muscles shortening both ends •Passive insufficiency - muscles longer and longer o Limitation of movement as well •The way muscles work - always involved in action o Always contracting • How am I able to get flexion and extension with the agonistic muscles contracting • Any time you produce one movement it will have affect all the way up and down the chain (muscles) • Like the pulley system in a car Producing movement • Your muscles act differently if you are producing power or endurance • Sprinter and marathon runner - difference o Marathon • Little bit of knee flexion, hip extension • If they did the same as sprinter they couldn't do the distance • Little muscle effo
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