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Lecture

TOPIC # 1: Introduction to the Nervous System.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3020
Professor
Denise Henriques

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Saad S. Khan HH/KINE - 3020 11th September 2013 Skilled Performance & Motor Learning Lecture # 1 Topic # 1: Introduction to the Nervous System  Nervous system has 2 components 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)  Neurons within skull and Spinal Column  Brain & Spinal Cord/ Spinal Column - CNS consists of 7 main regions I. Spinal Cord [Neurons or cells in the spinal column that receive and output information to and from muscle cells] II. Medulla [Right above "Spinal Cord"] Extension of the spinal cord B Regulates critical life support systems such as (respiratory system - R breathing, cardiac systems - heart rate, etc.) Drugs such as heroine, alcohol, etc. Reduce activity in this area of the A brain which can result to death due to abnormalities in breathing heart rate I etc. N III. Pons Serves as connection (or relay system like the thalamus) between higher S and lower brain regions, like b/w cerebellum and spinal cord T Important for "REM"(Rapid Eye Movement) sleep. It is the stage of E sleep where dreaming occurs M IV. Midbrain Above "Medulla" & "Pons" Controls reflexive arm and eye movements V. Cerebellum  Dense cluster of neurons that's located at the bottom lower part of our head - behind "Pons"  It is what's responsible for the timing and co-ordination of limbs & inter-limb segments  Allowing us to produce smooth and complex movements VI. Thalamus [ Diencephalon (Area where the "Thalamus" is located b/w brain]  Located above brain stem  Acts as sort of a "Sensory-Relay-Station" - It receives information  Processes it  Sends it to the next brain area appropriate to deal with that type of information VII. Cerebral Hemispheres [Forebrain - Cerebral Cortex]  Compared to other animals humans have this part of the brain proportionally larger than the brain stem 1 | P a g e Saad S. Khan HH/KINE - 3020 11th September 2013 Skilled Performance & Motor Learning 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) --- Brings sensory information into the nervous system  Peripheral Nerves & Ganglia [groups of like minded cells]  Neurons outside the CNS  Even though CNS & PNS are anatomically distinct, they are still interconnected - PNS bring information inside to the CNS - Motor outputs sent by the CNS go through the PNS  PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM can be divided twice into 1. SOMATIC - Soma = Body - Information to/from CNS about muscle & Limb Position and the external environment 2. AUTONOMIC - Autonomic = Automatic - Movements not under conscious control (not voluntary movements). Some examples include:  Breathing  Heart Beating  Sweating  Drooling  Producing Saliva in order to eat, etc. - Motor system for viscera [organs], smooth muscle & exocrine glands - Invisible or Unconscious kind of nervous system that regulate internal environment - Can be further divided into (1) SYMPATHETIC [FIGHT OR FLIGHT] - Refers to the autonomic processes necessary when one has to respond to an important stimulus  For example it inhibits digestion  Increases respiration, sweating, heart rate (2) PARASYMPATHETIC - Refers to processes that occur at rest Q1] What does the "Brain Stem" do? Ans.] Medulla [Right above "Spinal Cord"] Extension of the spinal cord Regulates critical life support systems such as (respiratory system - breathing, cardiac systems - heart rate, etc.) Drugs such as heroine, alcohol, etc. Reduce activity in this area of the brain which can result to death due to abnormalities in breathing heart rate etc.
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