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2nd Feb, Kine 3350.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3350
Kathy Broderick

 Muscle-skeletal System A. Skeletal System Age Related Changes 1. Bone (starts at age 35 people start to loose bone strength no matter if you are active.Woman leave more )  As we age we loose calcium in the bones and they loose their strength and bone density  Women more so than men 2. Cartilage (wears away)  As we age we loose cartilage which is the cushion in the joint  When we loose it completely we have bone rubbing bone so you get painful joint 3. Vertebrae  You discs and they have fluid (people loose those fluids as they age)  As you age the fluids disappear resulting in stiffness, back pain, and they loose height  Age Related Disorders Arthritis  1/6 will develop it  They don’t know causes or cures  Over 100 different types  It affects people differently  It should be treated seriously 1. Osteoarthritis  Main arthritis  80% of seniors have it  75% are women  Cartilage just wares out and you have bone rubbing bone Risk Factors of Arthritis  Family History  Age  Exercise o Over exercise/intense sports  Surfaces o Hard surfaces  Injury o From shoes, Sports injuries, car accidents  Footwear o Proper foot wear with support  Overweight o Have 50% chance of developing it Treatment (no cure and difficult to identify)  Losing weight  Physical activity  Drugs – 2 most used are Celebrex and Vioxx (have COX2 aiding stomach)  Herbal treatments  Surgery  Joint replacement (hip and knee replacements)  Tissue engineering – looking at pills to grow cartilage in future Holland Orthopedic andArthritic Centre (in TO)  Top treatment centre  Model for hip and knee surgery (assessment and pain)  Assessment – very high assessment  Pain – they set up a pain plan-start injecting pain drugs into site either knee or hip to block pain 1. RheumatoidArthritis  1/100 get this one  Autoimmune disease that eats away at bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments until you are completely disabled  No cure  Shortens life expectancy by 10 years  Worst type Symptoms:  May hit you quickly or over time  PAIN  It affects both hips or both hands whereas osteo may only affect 1 Treatment  Drugs – Remicade, Celebrex, Vioxx  Exercise  Diet  Physiotherapy  Surgery 2. Osteoporosis  Bone disease ( when the bones become very fragile)  Note bone peaks at 35 and than decreases after so you have to work on them  It a silent disease as its developing (NO PAIN) Risk Factors:  Age –loose more bone mass  Female – more prevalent (1/4 woman; was considered womans disease before)  Estrogen deficiency after metapouse  Testosterone deficiency after metapouse  White or Asian – more susceptible  Petite  Hereditary  Inadequate calcium  Vitamin “D” absorption  Smoking  Alcohol use/caffeine use  Inactivity  Eating disorders Diagnosis: - Full body scan is the best T Score – diagnostic scale after body scan +4 = Normal 2.5-4 Osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis) < 2.5 Osteoporosis Clear Connections:  Between family doctor and old person  It affects ¼ women yet the doctors don’t diagnose it The Disease:  Wrist – breaks wrist from small fall should check if they have osteoporosis  Vertebrae or spinal fractures – may even come from coughing or bending over or quick movement if you have osteoporosis  Hip fractures – own body weight can cause it to fracture and they can never get back up if its osteoporosis and they end up in nursing homes Treatment:  Early detection – bones scans  Calcium supplement and Vitamin D  The highest rate of osteoporosis in the world is Canada because we don’t get enough vitamin D (sunshine)  Exercise is important  Sleeping posture  Drugs – fosamax, actonel – stimulates bone growth  More awareness particularly for men 3. Grout  Another arthritic disease  Cause is a buildup of uric acid  Results in severe pain particularly in toe  Can be prevented by controlling diet  Men develop it 4 times than woman. 4. Lupus  Arthritic condition  Can affect the liver  Sun and exercise is very bad for it 5. Fibromyalgia  No swelling or signs of symptoms other than extreme pain so people think its in their head B. Muscle System Age Related Changes 1. Muscle wasting – loose muscle as you age (muscle mass goes from 30% and in your 70’s only 15%) Age Related Disorders 1. Sarcopenia o Extreme muscle wasting o Happen to a lot of old people particularly women o Cant even do ADL’s or climb stairs because of no muscle strength o They usually end up in a wheelchair 2. Muscle cramps  Disorder  Wake up with muscle cramps 3. Bursitis  Fluid around joints become inflamed  Can occur from doing extensive exercise TEST A-J 011 ACW K-Z 005 th th Feb 9 , NO CLASS ON Thursday Feb 16 . The Endocrine System Age Related Disorders 1. Diabetes  Is a result of elevated blood sugar in the blood  It’s a chronic disease that cant b
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