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MODR 1770B Note 6

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York University
Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Jai Chetram

MODR 1770B Note 6 Fallacy of Insufficient Presumption - Fallacy of presumption falls under the sufficiency criterion. - They occur in three types of cases: o Where the facts were overlooked o One evades the evidence o One distorts the evidence - He’s deleted strawman, red herring, amphiboly, and irrelevant thesis. Exercises 1. Conclusion: You shouldn’t oppose the proposal to amalgamate with the Canadian Chiropractic College. 2. P1: The president and dean are strongly in favour of it P2: You haven’t received tenure from them yet. P3: Since you haven’t received tenure, opposing them wouldn’t be a good idea. 3. Fallacy: Appeal to Emotion (fear) 4. Criterion of the fallacy: Seeking persuasion through fear 5. This happens in P2-3, when the person says that “Since they haven’t received tenure yet, being against the idea that is supported by the dean and the president (who can potentially kick them out). Exercises #2 1. You support promiscuity. 2. P1: You’ve never had a good relationship with a man P2: You resort to recreational sex. 3. Abusive ad hominem 4. Attack on the person instead of the argument 5. It occurs in P1, where she claims that you think promiscuity is all right because you’ve never had a good relationship with a man, so you would resort to recreational sex. 6. This argument violates the relevancy criterion because it uses the fallacy abusive ad hominem by attacking them with abusive terms, instead of using valid reasoning to lead up to the conclusion. Sweeping Generalization - Taking a rule and you generalize it without taking any context into consideration. Hasty - You have a small sample of evidence, and you extract a generalization out of it. The Evidence might be relevant and acceptable, but it’s not enough. - These are where most stereotypes stem from Bifurcation - Good or bad. - It takes two things that are contrary, and treat them as contradiction. False dichotomy. - This is a fallacy because they do not take the middle considerations. - Black and white, there is no gray: fallacious. - Example: Jainism is allowed for contradiction because there’s 7 ways you can capture the essence of what it is. - Non-Aligned nation
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