LIDE E Mid-1950s rock and roll styles
Race music was accused of causing kids to turn bad (delinquent). The lyrics were vulgar
involving topics of sex. The record industry saw a possibility of gaining a hold of
understanding it all; they then found a way of "sanitizing" the songs and creating cover
Taking in something and giving back. Seeger addresses this in his article that the music
was altered to fit the mainstream.
Everyone during this time was trying to access the teen music. All record labels wanted
in on this.
Chuck Berry -- the first audition he had was of "Ida Red" by Bob Wills and His Texas
Playboys (Leon McAuliffe (guitarist)). Chuck Berry listened to all kinds of music but had
a preference to country music. Bob Wills’s version had a country swing groove to it. This
was the type of music that inspired Chuck Berry in his own performances. Double stops
-- playing two notes at the same time on the guitar. Chuck Berry had 3 types of songs --
teenagers interested in romance, cars and no school. He kept the style but made the songs
lyrics about the things that youth wanted to hear/ what they were interested in.
"Maybelline" Chuck Berry (1955)
Roughly after 58 the closing down of the first period of rock and roll
THE IN BETWEEN YEARS
Some of the things that define the in between years. Pulling things out of this period that
were important for the music industry.
SLIDE THE IN BETWEEM YEARS (1958 - 1964)
around this time, the loss of many of those which began this period that was rock and
1. Loss of Leaders (1958)
Jerry Lee Lewis
conspiracy theory. Elvis being drafted into the army. By sending out such an artist as him
who was known for his ruckus that he portrayed, now was in an army uniform to defend
his country. Had an addiction to amphetamines before and even worse after being in the
Chuck Berry had the misfortune of being charged under the man act, ferrying a minor
across the border. He went to jail for 2 years.
Little Richard went back into the Church. He felt his career might be stalling, so he
became a minister. There were tax advantages of having your own church...so not too bad
Jerry Lee Lewis -- eaten up by the bad press.
Payola Scandal SLIDE
Independent record labels this was the cost of doing business. If you wanted to have your
product oon the market you had to pay up front. 1959 there was a congretional committee. Owen Harris was the chair of the committee.
Investigation of Fraud in television game shows. ("Twenty-one") they found out that
contestants were being coached for the answers. The entertainment industry. There was
still a lot of anxiety around race, delinquency and sex.
ASCAP (New York) at this point wanted a similar investigation. ASCAP (New York
Publishing), BMI (radio/time --- R&B Rock and Roll). Independent record labels had a
relationship with BMI. ASCAP wanted to prove that not just television had scandal but
also rock and roll was full of it.
Much like Machiavelli, these investigations would knock out the top at fault in order to
set a warning for all others.
If they could knock out indie radio/do they could knock out all recordings. They would
bring up the industry leaders (Alan Freed and Dick Clark).
Alan Freed (worked for WINS in New York) went to court and admitted that he received
that he received money for music played on his program. The IRS having found this out
hounded him. Now that he was labeled as a cheat, he went back to his radio station
assuming he would go on working and was handed a disclaimer when he refused to sign
it he was denied his job.
Dick Clark on the other hand was asked to do the same thing. He was asked a bit about
the industry, ABC (American Broadcasting Corporation) which he was most associated
with. He was advised by his lawyers to put his money away into trust. (DICK CLARK'S
FINANCIAL NETWORK SLIDE) He had conflict of interest with many artists. They
asked him if he received money for music he played on his program, he refused to play
cover versions this made him a target. He was connected in many ways, and this is why
he remains powerful in the entertainment industry to this day. He received a slap on the
These investigations/trials were to heed a warning to other DJs. There was a significant
decrease in independent labels.
Major Record SLIDE
wanted to reassert control over the Markey
Bought out contracts of major stars
bought out successful indie labels
hired independent producers
they were not interested in the business of sourcing the music the youth wanted.
Radio was not caught in a quandary. Though it was still happening and trying to attract
and maintain audiences, recording companies were the ones that were paying radio up
1948 2 radio engineers went to an industry meeting in New Orleans and after the meeting
went to a restaurant and noticed people constantly went to the juke box and played the
same song over and over again. They were doing this because it was a new song that
everyone now liked. These two engineers developed a new idea; format playlist. They
would put Top 40 songs and put them in 4 categories. On the radio the top 10 songs
would have more play because they were the ones people wanted to hear. The next 10
would have less frequent play and so forth. Unless a song was new it did not get a lot of
play unless it was s part of the