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November The code of life- 2.gene expression and transcription.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1610
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The code of life-Part 2. Gene Expression and transcription -flow of genetic information: the central dogma-from DNA to RNA to protein -DNA is hereditary material (genetic material) • Passed from one generation of cells to the next • Carries instructions for assembling proteins (in genes) • Genes are segments of DNA that carry information for assembling proteins -Gene expression is the 2-step mechanism by which the information in DNA is used to make proteins -Genes contain the information for making cells and organisms • Structural genes code for polypeptides o Polypeptides are the non-functional primary structures of a protein • Polypeptides becomes functional after they attain their final 3 dimensional structural organization o Secondary, tertiary (and some cases quaternary) structures • The activities of functional proteins o Determine the structure and function of cells • The traits or characteristics of organisms o Are based on the activities of their cells o Which result from the activities of their proteins -To get from DNA to protein requires 2 steps 1. Transcription: a. DNA strand provides template for the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand b. This process synthesizes all types of RNA from DNA templates c. Transcription of a gene produces a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule d. Transcription occurs in the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells 2. Translation: a. The information contained in the order f nucleotides in mRNA is used to determine the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide b. Translation occurs at ribosomes, in the cell cytoplasm -A gene is organized unit of DNA sequences that is be transcribed into RNA • Over 90%of all genes are structural genes o Code for messenger RNA (mRNA) o Specifies amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
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