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Lecture 8

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Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

Some Basic Concepts in Biology • The cell is the basic unit of life: all organisms and life forms on this planet are made out of cells o Unicellular  Made up of just one cell  Bacteria, yeast etc. Multicellular  Made up of several to billions of cells  10 is the number of cells in the human body  Most plants and animals  These cells work together to help the organisms grow and survive: insulin is made out of cells from the pancreas Organ systems work together to give life to the organism The Unity of Life All cellular life has the following characteristics in common:  Have a cell membrane that separates the chaos outside a cell from the high degree of organization within the cell o Regulate the flow of nutrients and wastes that enter and leave the cell Contains DNA as its genetic material Several varieties of RNA molecules All cellular life must have proteins o Most of the proteins are enzymes Are composed of the same basic chemicals: carbs, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, fats and vitamins Reproduce and are the result of reproduction Require a supply of energy All living things are pretty much the same at the molecular and genetic levels. Raw materials like proteins and nucleic acids are similar. They combine together in a host of possibilities. Every cell needs nutrients and an environment to suit its metabolic needs in order to carry on and survive. Diversity of living organisms Dust mites are involved with allergic reactions Ebola virus is very thin; other virus cells are a lot smaller than the Ebola virus in its size Pico virus is responsible for causing the common cold Cell Size Small Viruses Electron Microscope Bacteria Microscope Yeast
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