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Lecture 23.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

The origin of Mitochondria • The mitochondria have many similarities to bacterial cell: o Double membrane like some bacteria: our cells are made out of one plasma membrane o Circular DNA: this DNA has the structure of the ones you can find in bacterial cells. It is attached from one side to another in order to create a simpler structure, unlike our DNA which creates a linear structure o Genes without introns (to be discussed): Mitochondria’s coding region is not interrupted o Small ribosomes: they are active and are making proteins but they are not the kind of ribosomes you find in cytoplasm, they are much smaller. o Similar size to prokaryotic cells: the animal cell is quite large, whereas prokaryotic cells have similar size to bacterial cells o This has led many biologists to theorize that mitochondria are the descendants of some bacteria which was endocytosed by a larger cell billions of years ago, but not digested. o DNA is genetic material that can be passed on from generation from the next, though the mitochondria from the egg is only going to be passed down from the maternal line Video Lysosomes • Lysosomes are the cells’ garbage disposal system, the “clean-up crew” • Breaking down molecules into their base components using strong digestive enzymes Video http://highered.mcgraw- Nucleus Structure Image • The nucleus, the largest orga
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