• Major causes of influenza virus-associated death
o Bacterial pneumonia
Toxic shock syndrome
o Cardiac failure
• 200,000 hospitalizations and 38,000 deaths during typical season in the USA
90% of total deaths from influenza – persons aged >65 years
What are the options we have to fight the Influenza Virus?
Antiviral Drugs such as Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
The new H1N1 influenza virus from 100 patients have been tested for resistance to antiviral
medications. All have been found to be sensitive to Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
H7N9 Bird Flu May Be Developing Drug Resistance
Adsorption: Virus Hemagglutinin on the Virus Particle Attached to Sialic Acid on Cell
Sialic acid is the receptor for the influenza virus
Hemagglutinin is an Attachment Protein
• The Hemagglutinin spikes bind sialic acid, the receptor for the influenza virus.
Virus Hemagglutinin sticks new virus particle to sialic acid on cell surface and to other