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Lecture on Computers in Business

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1700
Dov Lungu

NATS 1700 November 14 &18, 2013 Computers in Business What we will learn • Information Systems • E-commerce and e-business • Mobile commerce Data, Information, Knowledge • Data are raw, unorganized facts o Representing events in an organization or in other environments o Ex.: Total number of votes in an election • Information is data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings o Ex.: The number of votes that each party obtained in an election • Knowledge is the “know-how” o The ability to use information correctly o Ex.: Predicting the political, economic, social, ramifications of the election results From EDT to IT • Almost from their beginnings computers have been strongly associated with business • First, there was a narrow definition of computers’ role in business: Electronic Data Processing (EDP) o Centered on data o Mainly accounting applications  Payroll, accounts receivable, sales records, etc. • Then, a broader definition of computers’ role in business: Information Technology (IT) • Centered on information o Helping with business decisions  Instant, online information  Budgets, marketing forecasts, statistics, graphs, etc.  Simulation and financial planning models  Communication with employees • The computer is integrated in all the operations of the organization Information Systems • An Information System (IS) is a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in any organization Business Information Systems • A Business Information System (BIS) is an Information System centered on significant businesspeople, places and processes within and outside a given organization o Supports decision-making and control o Examples: marketing , production , personnel , accounting , financial , strategy • A BIS can be manual or computer-based Computer – Based Information Systems • A CBIS is a socio-technical system NATS 1700 November 14 &18, 2013 o Technical  Information Technology : computer hardware, software and telecommunications equipment used to capture, store, process and distribute information  Process : set of steps used to carry out a specific activity o Social  People : all the individual directly involved  Structure : relationship among individuals • In addition to providing the benefits of any IS, a CBIS can help an organization to: o Achieve great efficiencies by automating parts of its business processes o Rethink and streamline business processes  Ex: United Parcel Service • Input : Collection of raw data • Process : Manipulation and analysis of raw data turning it into information (a more meaningful form) • Output : Distribution of information to people or activities where it will be used • Feedback : Output returned to some members of the organization to help them evaluate and correct actions Capabilities of CBIS • Provides fast and accurate transactions • Provides a database for large capacity, fast-access storage • Provides fast communications (machine to machine, human to human) • Reduces information overload • Spans boundaries between functional areas • Provides support for decision making Operational – Level Systems • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) o Perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the business at the operational level  Ex.: Merchant credit card processing; bank deposit and withdrawals
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