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Lecture 3

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1820
William Pietro

September 14, 2011 NATS 1820: Lecture 3 – Gap of 1000 years + ○ Galileo introduced reproducibility  An experiment one day should have the same result as the next  If two people do the same experiment then they SHOULD get the same result ○ Saturn has moons that orbit it  Galileo found this out by the use of his invention of the telescope – What is the HAAS Effect? ○ Brain is capable of relaying time delays to your ears  Picks up direct sound and times when the sound will reach your ear  Can know how big a room is, how far the sound is and where the location of the sound is – Post renaissance science: based on observation – Francis Baker (naturalist) → nature is the focal point of science ○ Knowledge comes from observing nature ○ Discovered refrigeration (accidentally killed a turkey and later found it in the snow, still intact)  Took two turkeys and placed one in the snow and one in normal conditions and saw that the snow stopped the turkey from decaying/growing bacteria – Isaac Newton (invented calculus) → last alchemist ever *Alchemy is the origin of chemistry ○ Was a priest, fascinated by nature ○ Theorising why prisms separate white light – F = ma → Newton’s second law of nature ○ Net force on object = mass of object x acceleration (force is proportional to acceleration) *Second major scientific law in science (both English) – First law came into effect 6 years earlier by Robert Boyle ○ 30 years earlier Kepler caused problems for the church *England and Italy began turning away from the church, however, it was easier in England to do so – PV = C → volume is inversely proportional to pressure ○ Gas is placed in a cylinder and volume is read, slowly compress the gas (add pressure to it) while temperature remains constant ○ Pressure x volume (always same constant) *completely reproducible – Boyle’s law allowed for the universe to be mathematically described instead of superstitiously – 1800s is when the term scientist was introduced – Aristotle said that sand could be divided and divided and still you would have sand ○ But if it was divided an infinite amount of times would it disappear? *was right  Limit to how far you can divided something (atom cannot be divided any further; molecule is a bunch of atoms) ○ Nanophase material (mesophase material) is composed of 100-200 molecules and has different properties as compared to a larger portion of that same material with the same chemical composition – Atoms consist of a positively charged centre (nucleus) ○ Around the nucleus are negatively charged particles called electrons  One positive charge and one or more negative charges *opposite charges attract – Raisin bun theory → blob with a positive charge and negative charges in it – 1899 there are no new fundamentals in physics (Max Born) ○ One year later physics was turned on its head – Ernest Rutherford 1880-1885 ○ Took gold foil 100 atoms thick and put it in front of a radiation source that fired alpha particles (positively charged)  Proved the raisin cake theory to be true ○ Put a zinc sulfide scintillator (when excited by ionized radiation reemits the absorbed energy in the form of light) in
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