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NATS1860 Note 5

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Natural Science
NATS 1860
Keith Schneider

MODR1770B Note 5 Fallacy of Ambiguity (Known as Linguistic fallacies) - The acceptability of criterion of a good argument  premises that are vague, open to doubt, are not acceptable. - Could occur by virtue of one word, combination of one of more, or by the entire sentence. - (Do not worry about amphiboly) - False Cause x  y because there’s a causal relationship. - Words get their meaning based on how we use language in our society. - Two types of meaning o Descriptive (denotative) It’s a literal meaning of the word o Prescriptive (connotative). They are internal because of the values we attach to it. It’s a judgmentive value.  Euphemism: a substitute that is a nice way we can convey the massage instead of saying something mean - Fallacy of Equivocation o Occurs when a keyword in an argument has two or more meanings, and it changes the way of the argument. o Uses the substitution method (if the fallacy is equivocation, do this in your test). Step 6: You restate the premises, and then you look for equivalent synonyms and substitute them there. Then, in your analysis how the synonyms strengthen the argument, and make them logically convincing. - Fallacy of Accent o When you stress a word in a sentence and thereby change the meaning of the whole sentence o Intended tone of voice is uncertain o Stress is unclear o Quoted out of context. o Always takes a sarcastic tone/voice. - Hypostatization (Reification) o When you take an abstract word. Abstract: it’s purely a mental thought, there’s no external reference: virtue, truth, beauty, etc. o Occurs when an abstraction is turned into a real, concrete thing o To reify something is to convert an abstract concept into a concrete thing o Ascribing substance or real existence to mental constructs or concepts - Division and Composition o These fallacies deal with physical objects (not abstract) o Division: what is true of the whole, must be true about each of its part:  This is a great movie, therefore everyone in this movie are great actors. o Composition
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