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York University
Political Science
POLS 2900
Simone Bohn

Hobbes • State of nature: is not a real place, but a thought experiment, a portrait of human life without governance • If people are this way, how would they behave? Their society? • No family or children • Individuals are relatively equal to one another, difference found do not significantly advantage one over the other, even the weakest man has enough strength to kill the strongest man • The majority of men hae only prudence, we acquire prudence through experience • Everyone may acquire the same degree of prudence • Men see their own wit at hand, and other man’s at a distance, howsoever they may allow other men to more witty or eloquent, but no as wise. • Out of a desire to provide for themselves, they endevour to destroy or subdue each other • Because of all are equal all are inclined to do the same, every person will view the other as a threat or as an obstacle • Aristotle said that we by nature are by nature we are social, hobbes sees everyone is a competitor if stripped down to our naturals • Three sources of conflict: competition (make man fight for gain), diffidence (invade for protection), glory(pride) (sense of self worth) • In the absence of power men are at war, all vs. all. • State of nature is a state of war, a free for all • War is not only conflict but the known disposition to fight, everyone is aware that everyone is going to use what they have in order to get what they want • War makes the state of nature a barbarous condition • A fear of death, a desire of material wellbeing, and live well through our own industry • Naturally occurring human desires, point a way out of a state of war • The laws of precept or rule discovered by reason • Each of us wants to live a comfortable life, in peace with one another • He contracts natural law with natural right, each person reviences an unrestricted right to possess anything and everything, because of individual evaluation of necessities for survival • Natural right allows for us to kill each other because of the fear of out own survival • Natural law contrains men’s actions • The first law is to seek peace • The second the means by which we can achieve the first, give up natural right and giv
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