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York University
Political Science
POLS 2940
Glenn Goshulak

Thursday September 26 , 2013 POLS 2940- Introduction to International Politics The Historical Context of International Politics  We cant understand what happens today without looking at the past  Any kind of history isn’t one of fact but of interpretation. A story or a narrative.  Political history – Mingst  International society- Baylis ; diplomatic history  Political , diplomatic , social history Pre- Westphalia Ancient Worlds  Greece o Greek city states o 500BC , intercity relation that suggests forms of cooperation o councils among various city states  sense of rules o shared moral understandings about right wrong way to conduct int affairs. Religious morals o philosophical traditions in Athens 500bc – ingrained in political society today o conceptions of democracy , justice and ethics. Helped shape context of modern  Indian o conceptions of the just war- certain wars just and fair o rules of war o scared natures of treaties  roman empire o 50bc – 400ad o incorporated many Greek city state. Larger political state o Systero – common law among nation ideas o Expansion of power and centralization of power o Ruling , allowing autonomy Early Middle Ages Fall of roman empire 400 AD. Ending renaissance  decentralization, o decentragation of roman empire o political system descentigrated o based around feudalism feudalism o land granted by local rulers to nobility classes. They would grant small bits of land to lesser landlords in return they were expected to provide solider some form of tribute. In return a grant of the land and a number of workers – serves or peasants (economic structure of feudalism)  catholic church, Orthodox/ Byzantine o accepted Christian faith, bishops given tracks of land. They could collect tides – 10% of what peasants made had to give to the church. o It was in the interest of the church to keep the political and social structure intact. Political authority and economic authority. o Church legitimized the social order of things . it preached don’t worry about the life accept what you’ve been given , if you accept it you will be rewarded. o They discouraged wealth as a pursuit – ungodly to make a lot of money. Held powerful socialization over the masses o Rival church- Orthodox church  ‘Holy Roman Empire’ o Tried to revive Roman Empire. o Charlemagne – Based on Hierarchy , Tradition , Role of the church - for many people in the middle ages life was very bleak , only lived to 30’s.  Islamic Empire Westphalia System Later Middle Ages  Itinerant merchant- o started to see people travel old roman roads – merchants would travel around , surrounded by guards. Would go to communities , started to bring things from all parts of Europe , India . China. o Brought communication and ideas o Beginnings of awakening of Europe o Would start making towns o Trade system  Urbanization o Larger and larger towns  Crusades o 11 century – catholic church afraid of Islamic empire. o Encouraged knights (with crosses) go on crusades. Free the holy land o As they travelled they brought back new ideas  Protestant reformation o John Calvin, Martin Luther o Challenged the ideas of catholic church. dominant ideas ; If you want to know Gods will you need to go to the pope o Challenge how you can have a relationship- you can have personal relationship with God. You don’t need the pope o Freed the idea that you can know the world around you o Freed up language , ideas , social , political  Renaissance, enlightenment o Rediscovering Greek and roman ideas o let people discover new ideas about science , politics o new ideas  Growth of National Power o After 1000AD – centralization of power around smaller number of leaders and monarchs o Small empires started to develop  Had to organize more effectively o To keep your power you wanted greater wealth o Start to search for new sources of wealth, change o Economic part of feudalism challenged o Fund explorations on land and sea o Religious flux – battle between catholic church and protestant church 1618-1648- religious wars  Machiavelli: The Prince o Diplomat in Italy – 15 , 16 century o The prince – outlined the qualities leader needed to have to built and sustain (38min)  Own interests , no universal morality  Act in the state interest o Most important is to stay into power  If you come into conflict between morally right and staying in power you stay in power o  1500s- 1600s: exploration, political/religious flux  Thirty years War (1618-1648) o Westphalia – signed a treaty Treaty Westphalia – turning point  Sovereignty o Was the idea that you ave the right to make decisions over the land you command o Soverants were limited to divine law (god’s law ) and by types of regime. Limited by covenants and contracts made with other states , promises and treaties o You had power to make decisions over people you rule over o Monarchs can choose – religious authority o The divine rights of kings – they had gods blessings o Challenged the authority of the church o Key concepts o Territorial state o Established boundaries o Created a better army  Treaty of Westphalia (1648) o Embraces sovereignty o Permanent standing armies  You need to fund army  Development of the first o Core group of dominant states – smaller empires  Austria  Russia  England France untied provinces o East – feudal practices o West – market form of society  Emergence of capitalist relations o Adam Smith – Wealth of nations (1776)  Organized ways of production
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