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Lecture 13

POLS 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Exterior Algebra, Bourgeoisie, Americans For Limited Government

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Martin Breaugh

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POLS 1000
Tuesday, January 17th, 2017
Week 13 - Liberalism
-Principles in the modern period, theoretical, and historical aspects
-France: Liberalism - in favour of the free market
-America: Liberalism - government intervention, free market, government intervention
-Canada: Liberalism - wealth distribution, free market, and government intervention
-Liberalism was conceived of (created) as a substitute for the religious outlook and teachings
of the Middle Ages
-Breaks the relationship with the state and the church
-Refuses all return to the antiquity (the Renaissance)
-It was a time of mystification
-Antiquity cannot be returned to as both the Greek and Romans had mores (habits of the
heart included violence) which encouraged war
-Liberals want competition so instead of war like the ancients, they offer commerce
-Merchant class is the social force behind liberalism
-Become the bourgeoisie
-Liberalism is a complex ideology
-Cannot be reduced to a single dimension
-Its resources are very complex
7 essential tenants within liberal ideology
1) Nature will do a lot for liberalism
-Includes physical aspects and the inner world
-Governed by laws of nature
-If human beings want to flourish and be happy, we must obey these laws
-Believes nature is abundant and generous
-Our happiness is found within nature
-Found within the full use and consumption of physical nature
-Happiness is also found by following the laws of human nature found within us
2) Reason is the fundamental manifestation of human being
-Use reason to understand physical nature and the laws of nature
-Contained within individual is reason
-Because of our understanding of physical nature, humans can use and transform nature to
maximize our wellbeing and happiness
-Can master the physical world
-Mastery of nature is a fundamental component of the modern project (make nature work for
-Progress and happiness depend on rational knowledge
-Ignorance is the root cause for unhappiness and underdevelopments
-Thus, favour the extension of education to all citizens
-Direct consequence of this is that human beings no longer must be governed by external
-ex. Church, society, government
-No external factors are required to attain personal happiness
-Contrary to natural reason, thus, they are “evil”
3) Laws of nature manifest themselves into individuals through reason
-Individuals are naturally self-sufficient (society must come second)
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