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Lecture

POLS 1000 Lecture Notes - Formal And Material Principles Of Theology, Happy Human, Sumo


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Professor
Martin Breaugh

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Socialism (other major ideological adversary of liberalism during the
19th C and throughout the 20thC)
Like conservatism, socialism and the birth of socialism is directly
linked to capitalism
Behind an ideology you find a social force
The term socialism is a recent invention
First occurrence is in Nov. 1833
Socialism occurs to mean a set of theoretical and political
positions that oppose the possessive individualism
Socialists will argue against the idea that egotistic actions and
private property are the exclusive motor of the economy
Socialists will attempt to resolve the problem the private
property
The principles of socialism will mirror the principles of liberal
ideology
Socialism won’t try to deny the principles of liberalism, wants to
surpass liberalism [go beyond liberalism] and want to do so by
pushing liberal principles to the extreme limit of their internal logic
Socialists will seek to go to the roots of liberal principles and it
will point to the fact that liberalism does not go far enough, where
liberalism stops socialism thinks we should continue
Socialists believe that this liberal part of departure entails that
we should have a equality outcome, liberals don’t believe that this
should be the case, liberals believe that equality of chances are
important. Socialism takes a liberals promise “everyone’s born
equal” and turns it around on them. [socialists will actually
maximise the universal nature of liberal ideology; they will push to
the maximum of the universal context]
Socialism is the child of liberalism
Liberalism naturally gives birth to socialism
First is liberalism, then conservatism then socialism
Socialists will be dissatisfied with the end result of liberalism
Socialism will be liberals in a hurry
Industrialization and urbanization will work together towards the
modern social class
Despite this diversity all socialists share of part take in these 7
principles
7 different principles of socialism
1. Nature is essentially positive
Nature is expressed as an order that is made up of laws
For socialists these laws of nature must be obeyed
The order of nature is good and human nature is also good
If we obey the laws of nature we can ensure our well beings; by
doing so they also ensure the well being of the whole
Starting point of liberalism

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2. Contrary to liberalism, socialism does not give the priority
to the individual understood as a self sufficient being
For liberals the individual always comes before society
Socialists will reject this idea
They will concede to liberals that we are all individuals but for
socialists individuals are inherently social beings [we naturally want
to live with others; as a matter of fact we naturally live with others]
We cannot separate the individual from society
We can give priority to the individual but there's no separation
between individual and society
Consequently individuals are not self sufficient; we have needs
that only others can provide for us.... old saying “ no man is an
island” [ so we need others to live, were not self sufficient]
We actively seek to live with others, to live in a society with
other people
For socialists we need others to become who we are, to fulfill our
potential, to have others around us
We can have all the talents in the world but if no one was around
us to recognize this we would have nothing, thus without the
presence of others we could not waste our talent
Humans are a gregarious[outgoing, seeks the company of others,
enjoys the company of others] animals [ both conservatives and
socialists agree that we need others to move on in life]
3. A direct consequence of this idea that were naturally
gregarious animals is that society cannot be reduced to the
subtotal of the individuals living in that society
As explained in liberal thought; society is born simply of the
interest and the activities of individuals guided by reasons
Socialists will strongly refute this consent for society [** for
socialists society exists before the individual]
Society has its own consistency, its own assents and to those
ends that can be reduced to the consistency, essence and ends of
the individual
For socialists, society is a substantive totality [autonomous
whole]; it has its own essence, it’s a whole upon itself, its more than
the sumo f its parts and the part being the individual... for socialists
individuals are parts of the whole
Without the full participation of society
Participation of the collective good or the society is what will
offer meaning of the individual
4. Socialists will agree with liberalism that nature is present in
all human beings
By nature we are all born free and equal
In liberal equality it’s not something invented were born free
Because liberty and equality are founded in nature, and they’re
both the instrument and the end of the realization nature
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