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Chapter 4-Sensation and Perception(psych1010).pdf

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PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

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Chapter 4-Sensation and Perception October-11-12 7:21 PM • Synesthesia ○ Mixing of the senses (experience sound as colour) ○ Very rare (1 in 500 000) ○ Experience it as a different modality ○ When he heard a higher tone, he produced a brown strip with a sweet and sour flavour ○ Raises a basic question to researchers Sensation • Stimulus detection ○ Occurs by stimulation of sense organs • Transduction ○ Converting energy (light, sound waves, vibrations, chemicals) into neural impulses (action potentials) ○ There is outside energy that comesin from environment Perception • Select, organize, interpret sensory input (give meaning to) • Integrate detected informationinto comprehensivewhole Psychophysics • Developed150 years ago • Gustav Fechner (1860s) • Relation between physical stimuli and our perception of those stimuli • What is the weakestdetectable stimulus for a given sense? • Threshold ○ Dividing point between energy levels from detectable to non detectable ○ Perceptible- conscious experience ○ Threshold --> ----------------------- ○ Imperceptible- no sensory response • Absolute Threshold ○ The intensity level at which a person can detect a stimulus 50% of the time ○ PAGE 139 • What is the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected? • Just Noticeable Difference (JND) ○ The minimum change in stimulation that senses can detect ○ Depends on magnitude of original stimulus Weber's Law • The size of JND is a constant proportion (fraction) of the sixe of the initial stimulus. • The smaller the "constant",the moresensitive we are to change in that modality ○ Vision 1/60 (2%) ○ Smell 1/4 (25%) ○ Taste 1/3 (33%) Psychophysical Scaling • The perceived intensity is NOT directly proportional to actual intensity (Fechner's Law) Fechner's Law • Larger and larger increases in stimulus intensity are required to produce perceptible increments in the magnitude of sensation Sensory Systems • Selectivity ○ Respond to changes in stimuli Sensory adaptation: prolonged stimulation leads to decline in sensitivity ○ Sensory adaptation: prolonged stimulation leads to decline in sensitivity ○ Cross adaptation- adapting to taste of one substance affects taste of other substance Classifications of the Senses 1. Vision 2. Audition 3. Taste 4. Smell 5. Touch a. Texture b. Temperature c. Vibration d. Pain e. Pressure 6. Body senses a. Kinesthetic sense  Position of limbs b. Vestibular sense i. Balance Visible Light Spectrum • Normal stimulus for vision is light waves • ON the spectrum we can see limit
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