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PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Twin, Flynn Effect, Twin Study

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Friday, February-01-13
Winter term Lecture #4
Factor analysis: determines whether questions on a test or across tests are
related to one another. Ex. An intelligence test that consists of 6 items:
Structure of I.Q (Intelligence)
1. IQ reflects a general capacity for reasoning
2. IQ reflects individual abilities
Nature-Nurture Controversy
1. Family studies: assessed the influence of hereditary on IQ by examining
blood relatives and seeing how similar they are on IQ scores 1st degree
relatives share 50% of their genes (parent/child, siblings)
2nd degree relatives 25%
3rd degree relatives 12.5% (cousins)
- The closer related you are the higher the correlation of IQ
2. Twin studies: compare the IQ’s of identical to fraternal twins
3. Adoption studies
How do genetics and the environment interact?
- Heridity sets the limits or boundaries on intelligence, and the environment
determines where a person falls within these limits
Reaction range: refers to the genetically determined limits on IQ - this is 20-25
IQ points
Flynn Effect: environment
Motivation and work; Emotion. Modules 32-37 ( but only 33.4 in Module 33)
Motivation :
2 components:
1. Drive or arousal – the energizing force, the urge to go out and do something
2. Goal-directed behaviour
Theories of motivation:
1. Freud’s life and death instincts
2. Sociobiological view
3. Instinct thories
4. Hull’s drive reduction theory
- Biological needs or deficiencies increase our level of drive(arousal). All of our
behaviour is geared towards satisfying this biological need and thus reducing
this drive to a zero level.
oE = D x H (e: chance of a given response occurring – depends
on drive x habit strength)
- One important thing he didn’t take into consideration:
INCENTIVES: anticipated rewards (learned) ex. Going to university and anticipating
you will get a better job, not being hungry but eating a piece of pie because you
anticipate it will taste good.
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