chapter thirteen terms
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) – a disorder in which the immune system is
gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Acute stressors – threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint
Aggression – any behavior that is intended to hurt someone either physically or verbally
Approach-approach conflict – a choice must be made between two attractive goals.
Approach avoidance conflict – a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal
that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
Avoidance avoidance conflict – a choice must be made between two unattractive goals
Biopsychosocial model – holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of
biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
Burnout – physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that
can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress.
Catastrophic thinking – unrealistically negative appraisals of stress that exaggerate the
magnitude of one’s problems.
Catharsis – release of emotional tension. Example: behaving aggressively could get pent-up
emotion out of one’s system
Chronic stressors – threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily
apparent time limit.
Conflict – two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression
Constructive coping – refer to relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful
Coping – active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress
Defense mechanisms – largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant
emotions such as anxiety and guilt
Fight or flight response – physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous
system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy
Frustration – any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
General adaptation syndrome – model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three stages:
alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Alarm reaction occurs when an organism first recognizes the
existence of a threat. As stress continues, resistance allows physiological changes to stabilize as
coping efforts get under way. If the stress continues for a substantial period of time it could lead
to exhaustion wherein the body’s resources for fighting stress are limited
Health psychology – concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and
maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.
Immune response - body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other
Internet addiction – consists of spending an inordinate amount of time on the Internet and
inability to control online use.
Learned helplessness – passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
Example: individuals come to believe events are beyond their control.
Life changes – noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment
Optimism – general tendency to expect good outcomes Post- traumatic stress disorder – involved enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the
experience of a major traumatic event
Pressure – expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way
Primary appraisal – an initial evaluation of whether an event is (1)irrelevant to you (2) relevant
but not threatening (3)stressful.
Psychosomatic diseases – genuine physical ailments that were thought to be caused in part by
stress and other psychological factors
Rational-emotive therapy – approach that focuses on altering clients’ patterns of irrational
thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behaviour
Resilience – successful adaptations to significant stress and trauma, as evidenced by a lack of
serious negative outcomes
Secondary appraisal – an evaluation of you coping resources and options for dealing with stress
Social support – various types of aid and emotional sustenance provided by members of one’s
Stress – any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and that
thereby tax one’s coping abilities
Type A personality – includes three elements: (1)a strong competitive orientation (2)impatience
and time urgency and (3) anger and hostility. Type A’s are ambitious, hard-working
perfectionists who are exceedingly time conscious. They routinely try to do several things at
once. Often they are highly competitive, achievement oriented workaholics who drive
themselves with many deadlines. They are easily irritated and are quick to anger.
Type B personality – relatively relaxed, patient, easy going, amicable behaviour. Type B’s are less
hurried, less competitive, and less easily angered than type A’s.
chapter fourteen terms
Agoraphobia – fear of going out to public places.
Anhedonia – diminished ability to experience pleasure
Anorexia nervosa – involves intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to
maintain normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose weight
Anti-social personality disorder – impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive and irresponsible
behaviour that reflects a failure to accept social norms.
Anxiety disorders – feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
Autism (autistic disorder) developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits,
along with repetitive and stereotypic behaviours, interests and activities.
Availability heuristic – the estimated probability of an event is based on the ease with which
relevant substances come to mind
Binge eating disorder – distress-inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by the purging,
fasting, and excessive exercise seen in bulimia.
Catatonic schizophrenia – marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity
to random motor activity.
Comorbidity – the coexistence of two or more disorders
Concordance rate – the percentage of twin pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
Conjunction fallacy – when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening
together are greater than the odds of either events happening alone. Culture- bound disorders – abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
Cyclothymic disorder – people exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar
Delusions – false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with
Diagnosis – distinguishing one illness from another
Disorganized schizophrenia – particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behaviour. Prominent
symptoms include emotional indifference, frequent incoherence, and virtually complete
withdrawal. Aimless babbling and giggling are common. Delusions often center on bodily
Dissociative amnesia – sudden loss of memory for important personal information to extensive
to be due to normal forgetting
Dissociative disorders – class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their
consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.
Dissociative fugue – people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of
personal identity. Example: forgetting their names, their families, where they live, and where
they work. They remember things unrelated to their identity.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – the coexistence in one person of two or more largely
complete, and usually very different personalities. (Also known as multiple personality disorder)
Dysthymic disorder – consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify
diagnosis of a major depressive episode.
Eating disorder – severe disturbances in eating behaviour characterized by preoccupation with
weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight.
Epidemiology – the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Etiology – the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.
Expressed emotion (EE) – degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly
critical or emotionally over involved attitudes towards the patient.
Generalized anxiety disorder – chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
Hallucinations – sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are
gross distortions of perceptual input.
Major depressive disorder – people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of
interest in previous sources of pleasure.
Medical model – proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease
Mood disorders – class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may
spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social and thought processes.
Negative symptoms – behavioural deficits such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy,
impaired attention and poverty of speech
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted
thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
Panic disorder – recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occurs suddenly and
Paranoid schizophrenia – dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of
Personality disorders – class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that
cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
Phobic disorder – persistent or irrational fear of an object or situation that presents to realistic
danger Positive symptoms – behavioural excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions,
bizarre behaviour, and wild flights of ideas.
Postpartum depression – type of depression that sometimes occurs after childbirth
Prevalence – percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period
Prognosis – forecast about the probable course of an illness.
Representative heuristic – estimated probability of an event is based on how similar the event is
to the typical protocol of that event.
Schizophrenic disorders – class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized
speech, and deterioration of ad